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  • Writer's pictureHans Faber

Tolkien pleaded in favour of King Finn

King Finn of Frisa and Hengest
King Finn (r) and Hengest (l)

Around the year 440 (Shippey 2022), a betrayal took place on the southern shores of the North Sea. It was a tragedy that the peoples in north-western Europe haven't forgotten ever since, not even as far as in Bavaria. And it never will. We are talking about the bloody battle at the citadel of King Finn, or Fin Folcwalding Fresna cynne, as he was named in the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsið. The poem, dating from the early tenth century, tells the story of Finn, son of Folcwald and the young king of the Frisian tribe. It was a battle that shook the North Sea world. But why was and is it a battle to be remembered? And who is this Finn anyway?

This blog post takes the reader back to the dawning of Frisia. To the mystic time of the Wandering of Peoples, also called the Migration Age. When a new tribal identity was forged at the wet waterfront of the southern North Sea. Using building blocks from the Franks, the Old Frisians, the Old Saxons and southern Scandinavians. Part of a wider regional history as painted by Nennius around the year 800 in his Historia brittonum. When three ceols 'keels' (i.e. ships) under the command of the legendary Horsa and Hengest (also written as Hengist), migrated from the south-eastern shores of the North Sea, from where they were exiled, to the Isle of Thanet. Where the first Anglo-Saxon kingdom would be founded, the Kingdom of Kent.

Finn son of Foleuuwald 'Folcwald' is also documented as Finn son of Fodepald and, in the eighth- and ninth-century Anglian collection and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as Finn son of God(w)ulf. It is unclear whether Finn son of Folcwald, and its variants Foleuuwald and Fodepald on the one hand, and Finn son of Godulf on the other hand, are one and the same. One theory says that Godulf is the real name of Finn's father and Folcwald(a) was his title. A title meaning something like 'rule over people'. Therefore, Finn Folcwald son of Godulf Folcwald (Bliss 1982).

Frisia was located centrally because it was liminal (IJssennagger 2017). In fact, this is a long-standing historic concept which we encountered very appropriately in a novel (1991) about King Finn too:

“To the north and west of us, across the Swan Road, lies the land of the Britons where the Angles and Saxons now rule. To the north and east,” he [King Finn] continued, adjusting his grip on his staff and pointing just north of the rising sun, “lies the land of the Danes. And south of us,” he finished, turning around and looking out over Hwitstan, “is the Merovingian kingdom – the land of the Franks. And beyond the Frankish kingdoms lie all of the great kingdoms of the continent. Our land stands at the center of these like a young sapling in the midst of a great oak forest.”

The Finnsburg Encounter by Dickerson, 1991

After the heroic story of the battle had been sung by minstrels and bards, and orally passed on for centuries, the story was finally put into writing. Two early-medieval texts report about the famous battle in which the edge of a sword sealed Finn's doom, namely the monumental Old English epic poem Beowulf and the so-called The Finnsburh Fragment. The Fragment was found in the year 1705, and it also happens to be the oldest surviving pagan poem in the Old English language. It is being suggested that the Fragment was, in fact, part of a manuscript telling The Saga of Hengest. The Fragment is probably also older than the Beowulf, because it lacks Christian references which the Beowulf has (Webster 2012).

The whole affair is called freswæle too, meaning 'Frisian slaughter' in the Old English language, with wæle or wal meaning 'slaughter, the slain'. An etymology traceable in Valhalla and Valkyrie (Van Renswoude 2020). In the story of Beowulf, the fight at Finnsburh is one of the tales told when warriors gathered and celebrated their heroic deeds. Apparently, it was a legendary story worth reciting during feasts in mead-halls (Herrenhof in the German language) of lords, kings, overkings, and other big men. Who knows in the turf-built houses of common people on terps (i.e. artificial settlement mounds) on the barren salt marshes of Frisia too, during the long wet winters. A landscape where strong winds coming from the sea have free play and from which there is no hiding because of the total lack of natural shelters.

Of course, the Frisians might have had a different version of the course of events of the freswæle than that of their contemporary Saxon and Danish cousins, and why their young king bit the salty mud. You will understand why after you have read this blog post.

ða wæs heal roden feonda feorum | swilce Fin slægen | cyning on corþre | ond seo cwen numen

The hall was reddened with blood of foemen | and Finn was slain | king amid clansmen | and their queen was taken (Beowulf)

1. The name Finn

The name Finn is widely known. A Swedish legend has it 'Finn the Giant' built the cathedral of Lund in southern Sweden near Malmö. This Finn is said to be depicted on a pillar in the crypt of this cathedral dating to the early twelfth century. In Danish folklore, however, the figure Finn wasn't a giant but an ugly troll instead. A bit further northeast from Denmark, a whole country is filled up with witchy Fins. Indeed, everyone knows, Fins and witchcraft are one and the same.

Back to the Danish archipelago. On the Danish island of Fyn, also called Funen, near the village of Gudme, the most important so-called Central-Place-Complex (CPC) has been discovered, known today. The area flourished between ca. 400-600. Indeed, the time of King Finn. Kilos of gold have been found, and big halls similar to those described in the Beowulf. One hall measured an amazing forty-seven by ten meters.

These southern Scandinavian type CPCs have been identified in what is now the Netherlands as well, especially around the towns of Rijnsburg and Egmond, in the respective provinces of Zuid Holland and Noord Holland (Dijkstra 2011). CPCs can indicate an early-medieval kingdom too. Archaeologists have reconstructed four sixth-century Anglo-Saxon and Frisian kingdoms along the southern North Sea, namely at southern East Anglia, at southern Kent, at the mouth of the River Rhine, and at the territory of Westergo in the province of Friesland (Van Eerden 2023). Lesser CPCs are being suspected at the mouth of the River Thames, at the town of Wijk bij Duurstede (i.e. Dorestat), and at the settlement of Laar near the town of Rhenen. Further below we will dig a bit deeper into these CPCs.

Furthermore, the name Finn is a common Anglo-Saxon name. In this respect, since the character Finn Dandridge appeared in the highly popular TV series Grey’s Anatomy around 2005 -and this Finn clearly wasn't an ugly Danish troll- the first name Finn became an instant hit in the Netherlands. Thus, the Netherlands is filling up with Finns too. Concerning Mark Twain's book 'Huckleberry Finn', we will have to come back to you. It still needs some research. Especially the history of the Frisians as well-known slavers in the Early Middle Ages.

In Ireland and Scotland the name Finn surfaces from the black peaty waters with Loch Finn and Glenfinnan. Maybe names related to fen or fenland. In addition, a ffynnon is a well or spring in the Welsh language. Finngaill or finngenti means 'fair foreigners' in old Irish texts. Of course, we must not forget to mention the Celtic hero known as Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill. The Irish hero and king who got his wisdom from sucking his thumb (see intermezzo below). On Orkney you can stay the night in the village of Finstown. Hardly a location where the Finn's burh could have been, but even so.

Lastly, a finne in modern Mid-Frisian language is a kind of meadow that is rarely or never mowed. In origin grazing lands surrounding the terp settlement on the tidal marshlands.

In sum, not much coherence at all with this very arbitrary overview, except for the fact that the name Finn is found in the wider North Sea area. Maybe one of the best etymological explanations of the name Finn is the Old Germanic finnaz meaning 'breathing, inspired, invested', in other words the inspirator (Van Renswoude 2017). Whereas the Celtic Finn stems from fionn meaning 'light' in the sense of luminescent.


The legend of Finn mac Cumhaill (after Clerinx 2023) - Finn's father was the leader of the Fianna. This was a band of warriors roaming through the lands. Raiding and robbing whatever they came across. Before Finn was born, his father was murdered, and the druid Finnegas raised the little boy.

When Finn had become a young man, he managed one day to kill the murderer of his father and got his inheritance. This was a bag made of the skin of a crane filled with a spear, a helmet, a shield, and a belt made of pig leather. With his stuff, Finn went to his godfather, the druid Finnegas. Finngeas had just succeeded in catching the salmon of wisdom, and whoever ate this fish received all the wisdom of the world. Finnegas asked Finn to prepare the salmon. While roasting the fish, Finn burned his thumb. Instantly, Finn put his thumb in his mouth and licked a few drops of the fat from the pan. That is how Finn received all the wisdom and not Finnegas.

With his knowledge, Finn travelled to the highest king of Ireland. He lived in the fortress called Tara. However, this fortress was razed to the ground by the incendiary Áillen. The magician Áillen possessed a tune from the elves that made everyone fall asleep. This is how he could destroy Tara every year. Finn promised to rescue Tara in exchange for becoming the new highest king. The people of Tara agreed but didn't believe he would be able to defeat Áillen.

But Finn didn't fall asleep. He had his head placed above a spear, and the minute the tune of Áillen made him fall asleep, he would wake up because his head touched the spear. When Finn felt the spear, he knew Áillen was there. With his spear, he killed Áillen. A normal weapon would not have been able to do so. However, Finn's spear was made by Len the blacksmith, who was a friend of his father and had given it special powers. This way, Tara was saved, and Finn became king.


Since this post is also about writer and philologist Tolkien, we need to say something about his books as well. In Tolkien's book The Silmarillion, one of the three forefathers of the elves is King Finwë of the House of Finwë, king of the Noldor. Probably Tolkien took the Old Germanic finnaz as inspiration, or maybe straight the name Finn from the epic poem Beowulf and the Finnsburh Fragment, since he made a full study into this Frisian king (see further below). King Finwë had many descendants bearing his name: Fingolfin, Fingon, Finarfin, Finrod, Finduilas, and Curufin. The Silmarils are three brilliant ornaments that were stolen. It was Fëanor, son of Finwë, who created the Silmarils.

The central role beautiful crafted jewels or ornaments could play in pre-medieval mythology is illustrated with the Brísingamen, mentioned in the epic poem Beowulf too as well as in other old sources. Read our post Ornament of the Gods found in a mound of clay to learn how and where the Brísingamen, King Hygelac's neck-ring, has been retrieved in Frisia.

2. Finn the legend

The fact that a Frisian king, Finn son of Folcwald, is mentioned in the monumental epic Beowulf, and his name is confirmed in several other medieval texts (i.e. the aforementioned late eighth-century Historia brittonum and the tenth-century poem the Widsið, but also the thirteenth-century Skáldskaparmál of the Prose Edda), is already unique in itself. Again, as said concerning Finn son of Godwulf in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Anglian collection, Finn son of Burri mentioned in the Icelandic Edda might be a different Finn too.

Þat var hjálmrinn Hildigöltr ok brynjan Finnsleif er á hvárigu festi járn

which were the helm Battle-Boar and the byrnie (i.e. shirt of mail or hauberk) of Finn's heritage on neither of which iron would take hold (Skáldskaparmál, Edda)

The events at the citadel Finnsburh have taken place in Frisia, and this king was an inspiration for Tolkien's famous books. Sadly, this piece of history receives little to no attention in history lessons at high schools in the Netherlands. Not even in the province of Friesland. We do not know how it's in the states of Lower Saxony and of Schleswig-Holstein, home to the regions of Ostfriesland and Nordfriesland respectively. So, please do fill us in. Let us conclude for now that the metre and the non-straightforwardness of the Old English verses of Beowulf are not only difficult for Dutch students to read and understand. Maybe this post can help out a bit. In the Dutch teachers' defence, it took the British a very long time to appreciate the Beowulf. Actually, not until after the Second World War had ended.

The story of the Battle at Finnsburh is typical Germanic. It is about loyalty, blood feud between relative by marriage, tragic conflict of duties, the rejoicing in the tumult and pageantry of battle, Braveheart-like speeches of encouragement, stubbornness of eager young men unwilling to listen to the elders, feastings in the mead-hall, the conviction that joy is bound to turn into sorrow, etc. (Klaeber 1922). Concerning the latter, to this day the Dutch and Germans like to say to children joking around: "van lachen komt huilen", or "nach lachen kommt weinen". Both meaning 'laughing causes crying/after laughing comes crying'.

So, let's tell more about King Finn, for the history of the world is but the biography of the great, is it not?

The text of the epic poem Beowulf dates from around the year 850. That is already pretty vintage. But personages appearing in the Beowulf are even much older, and go back to the late period of the Wandering of the Peoples. The main character warrior Beowulf is a nephew of king Hygelac, who is king of the Geats. A people living in the southeast of present-day Sweden. Hygelac is indisputably historic and recorded by historians in the sixth century already.

According to the Gallo-Roman historian Gregory of Tours (ca. 538-594), King Hygelac was killed during a raid at the (former) mouth of the River Rhine. It must have been in the year 516. This might have been at or near the settlement of Rothulfuashem or Hrothaluashem, meaning Rothulf's or Radulfus' home in the eighth century. It was renamed Rinasburg 'Rhine burh' in the ninth century after a ring fortress had been built. Today, the town of Rinasburg is known as Rijnsburg. According to other sources, Hygelac was killed by the Franks between 516 and 534, a bit more upstream the River Rhine, near the present-day town of Nijmegen in the province of Gelderland. Read our post Ornament of the Gods found in a mound of clay to learn more about King Hygelac's wild and irresponsible adventures on Frisia territory.

Thus, Beowulf's nephew might have been killed by the Frisians, although the Salian Franks can also be held responsible. A prime suspect who killed King Hygelac is Daeġhrefn, Hūga cempan 'hero of the Hugas', a name meaning 'day-raven'. The Hugas stemm from the region of Hugomarchi 'mark of the Hugas' in the present-day province of Groningen, in the north of Frisia. He is mentioned in the Beowulf just before the epic battle with the dragon. Beowulf killed Daeġhrefn by breaking his bānhūs 'bone-house' (kenning for skeleton) with his bare hands. Therefore, Daeġhrefn could not present the priceless and desired neck-ring of King Hygalac to the Frēscyning 'king of the Frisians'. A defeat which was considered a heroic achievement. Some scholars say it was to avenge the death of Hygelac (Beach 1992, Gerritsen & Van Melle 1993), while others do not support Beowulf's retainer murder motive (McNamara 1976). Daeġhrefn could be Frankish or Frisian, but at least a warrior fighting for the king of Frisia apparently. We leave it to the prosecutor's office to determine who was guilty of killing King Hygelac, but the scene of the crime was Frisia anyway.

Not long after these events, in this river-land of the Lower River Rhine, the Frisians would establish an unprecedented big trade emporium named Dorestat. This town was located at the present-day town of Wijk bij Duurstede in the province of Utrecht. To attain this jewel of the Rhine, the Frisians and the Franks would engage in a long and bloody competition during much of the seventh and early eighth centuries. And, topping it off with many heavy Viking raids in the ninth century, plundering Dorestat year after year. Emporium Witla, located somewhere in the mouth of the River Meuse near present-day Voorne, would, for example, never recover from the Viking attack in the year 836. For more background on Dorestat and a bit more nuanced view on the Viking raids on Dorestat, read our post The Batwing Doors of Northwest Europe.

"Beyond this mere, there are the dells full of the people of Frisia, and a settlement called Schrawynghop. And built in its center, in a place of pride, is the mead-hall called Trollhattan."

Break The Beast by Tebo, 2023

The where the stronghold Finnsburh was located, will probably remain unknown forever. There is a local bar in the outskirts of The Hague called Finnenburg, but that is hardly convincing. However, we can safely assume it must have been within the territory of western Frisia. In the late fifth century, Frisia stretched from the northern coast of the Netherlands to the northwest coast of Germany, up to the River Weser. Furthermore, the estuaries of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and the basins of the River Rhine and the River Stichtse Vecht belonged to the area considered Frisia too, already in the fifth century. The raid of King Hygelac happened in western Frisia where the River Rhine flowed. In the sixth century, Frisians also settled in the current province of Zeeland and the coastal zone of the region of Flanders in Belgium too, with the southernmost border called Sincfala. Check our post A Frontier known as a watery Mess: the Coast of Flanders about this most southern border of Frisia.

We think the central river lands, and the River (Old) Rhine in particular, might contend for the seat of Frisian (over)kings. This area gave them control over important trade networks, and at the same time, being connected via the seġl-rād (literally 'sail-road', an Old English kenning from Beowulf meaning 'sea') to the elite network of the wider North Sea that had developed from the sixth century onwards. As mentioned, battles at the mouth or upstream of the River Rhine have been recorded during this era of Hygelac, and archaeological finds (e.g. coinage of ca. 600 of Audulf, a 'king' of Frisia upstream of the River Rhine) are indications. Lastly, very practically, the area supplied local rulers with plenty of remnants of former Roman fortresses of scarce stone that were part of the Roman limes 'border' a few centuries earlier. Who knows, future archaeological research in the area of Rothulfuashem might disclose more about rulers immediately after the Migration Period.

early-medieval buckle Rinasburg / Rijnsburg Frisia
buckle ca. AD 635 - Rothulfuashem / Rinasburg, modern Rijnsburg

The River Stichtse Vecht basin in the province of Noord-Holland also has strong claims to being the seat of kings or big men. The River Stichtse Vecht is a crucial and lucrative logistical connection between the Frankish hinterland to the south and southern Scandinavia to the north. From different early medieval sources we know that part of this pagus 'territory' called Niftarlake was 'property' of Frisian elites, chiefly the UUrssing or Wurssing family at the end of the seventh century. The Wurssing family had their family estate at the present village of Nederhorst ten Berg, known as Werinon back then. The person Wurssing was also the grandparent of Saint Ludger, a Frisian preacher who would later convert his own Frisian kin in northern Frisia. Many place names, particularly in the northern area of the River Stichtse Vecht basin, are of Frisian origin or have a Frisian predecessor.

It was at the settlement of Attingahem, 'home of Atto', a Frisian first name still being used as Atte in the province of Friesland, where Saint Boniface founded his first church around the year 720. Today, the name Attingahem is replaced by the non-Frisian place name Breukelen. Read also our post Attingahem Bridge, NY to learn more about the pagus Niftarlake and its connection with, among other places, Brooklyn. Furthermore, the so-called asega law tradition was applicable in the pagus Niftarlake, which is a typical Frisian practice. From 719, this area came under Frankish rule, after which much of the pagus Niftarlake fell under the jurisdiction of the monastery of Werden. Later, in the course of the tenth century, much of it came under the control of the counts of Hamaland and was renamed Naerdinclant.

The importance of the River Stichtse Vecht basin might date back to the times of heathenism. In this area, between three to six so-called table mountains have been identified, namely Tafelberg near the town of Blaricum, and Eukenberg and Sijdjesberg near the town of Huizen. Three other possible table mountains were Leeuwenberg near the village of Oud Valkeveen, Trapjesberg near the town of Huizen, and Zwarte Berg near the town of Hilversum. Quite a high density, and that is an understatement. These are, or were, since several have been dug up, all conical-shaped artificial mounds with a flattened top. Often surrounded at its base by an earthwork. The purpose of these mounds is uncertain; whether religious, military, or political. Although very old, dating the table mountains is quite impossible but assumed to be prehistoric. From written sources, we know these table mounds existed at least in the tenth century. A similar mound is known in southern England, namely Silbury Hill (Schuyf 2019).

artist impression of a king’s hall on a terp at the tidal marshlands of medieval Frisia by Sjoerd Bijkerk
Sele hlifade, heah ond horngeap

The hall towered up high and wide-gabled (Beowulf)

Or was the citadel of Finn located on the island of Sylt in the region of Nordfriesland, close to the Danish border, as the old sagas tell us? Close to the land of the Jutes? According to the North-Frisian sagas, Finn was the king of the Onereesken in the North-Frisian language. These were dwarfs who lived in holes under the ground on the poor heath. Unterirdischen, as they are called in the German language. The finnr 'dwarfs', who were the original people of the island of Sylt, came into conflict with the Frisian Riesen, the giants who had occupied the richer clay soils of the island. A great battle took place at the spot where the lighthouse stands today. During this battle, four kings died. King Bröns and Sea-king Ring of the giants, King Neski of the Puken, who fought alongside the dwarfs, and King Finn. King Finn was the only Onereesk who survived the violence. But Finn did not want to outlast his people. At sunset, Finn stabbed himself in the chest with his stone knife and died. This saga was told by an old woman named Inken Teidis from the village of Baderup on the island of Sylt, documented in the year 1875 (Wiersma 1937).

Once the student association 'Finn' existed in the town of Leiden. A town in the province of Zuid Holland at the confluence of the rivers Old Rhine and Rhine. Where one of the oldest (and surviving) ring fortresses, De Burcht 'the burh,' stands. Had those smart students of Leiden University information this was indeed the location of the former citadel of King Finn? Alas, we cannot ask them anymore because the association has been dissolved due to the almost complete absence of interest of Frisian students for their own cultural heritage and identity.


Rothulfuashem & Central-Place-Complexes - To dig a bit deeper into Rothulfuashem at the mouth of the River Rhine. This settlement was part of a CPC akin to those that existed in southern Scandinavia (Dijkstra 2011), including the island of Fyn in Denmark. Underlining the influence of Scandinavian culture in Frisia as well as the kinship between the two. But this aside.

A CPC was an area with a diameter varying between five and twenty-five kilometers, mostly strategically located at a river mouth. Within this area, different functions were located, all belonging to one social-political entity. These different functions were: the residence of the elite or Gefolgschaft (i.e., a large building called a hall), the place for craft (e.g., a blacksmith and/or a mint for coinage), the location for trade or vicus mostly along the river banks, the place of heathen cult, the place of burial, the fortifications or military stronghold, and the location of the thing. A thing (also ting, ding, or þing) being a place on a hillock for assembly and judgment. Check out our post The Thing is... to find more information about these Germanic assemblies and the specific part Frisians played in this piece of history.

Many functions within a similar area can be identified along the Netherlands' coast too. Firstly, in the area Katwijk-Rijnsburg-Valkenburg-Oegstgeest, with De Luttele Geest being the location of the former thing. A second area is Hargen-Egmond-Egmond aan Zee-Egmond Binnen (formerly called Hallem)-Heiloo-Velsen in the province of Noord Holland. This might be a former CPC too, with De Schepelenberg near the town of Heemskerk as the location of the thing. The former place name Hallem of present-day Egmond-Binnen indicates the presence of a hall, a citadel of an elite. The place name Hargen is related to Old Germanic hearg, like Harrow north of London in England, and it means 'heathen shrine'. Another, third, CPC is suspected at the mouth of the river Meuse. Because much land disappeared into the sea here, this will stay speculation forever, probably.

Lastly, research suggests that the northern part of pagus 'district' Westergo (originally named Uuistrachia 'western island') in the province of Friesland, can also be considered a CPC (Nicolay 2005). That would be the fourth one. This is because of the amount of gold (approximately 1.5 kilos in total) which has been found in its fat clay, the clear connections with the elites of Jutland and later Kent, the political-religious expressions through the jewellery and runes found, the production of high-end goods, and finally, the area's central geographic (trade) position between southern Scandinavia and the Anglo-Saxon world of the British Isles.

Increasing evidence is piled up in the neighbouring pagus 'district' of Oostergo, originally called Austrachia 'eastern island', that a power base existed here as well. Probably subordinated to the ruler at Wijnaldum in pagus Westergo (Nieuwhof 2023). The remains of a sixth-century Vendel helmet (see further below), the sixth-century silver rings on a sword pommel, and a gold-ornamented sword pommel are strong indications. The remains of the Vendel helmet were found in the village of Hallum, not to be confused with Hallem in the province of Noord Holland, mentioned earlier. The remains of the ring sword, i.e. silver rings moulded onto the pommel of the sword, were found near the town of Dokkum. The moulded rings, also found in Kent, might have been gifts demonstrating a warrior's fealty to his lord (Brooks & Harrington 2010). And once again, the place name Hallum here too indicates the former presence of a hall belonging to a prominent individual.

A possible hall of the local leader has been identified, dating eight-ninth centuries. It's a circa 18.2 meters long and 6.2 meters wide, single-isled building. Contrary to the other buildings with walls made of turfs/clay sods, its walls are also made of wood. Wood that must have been expensive on the salt marshes (Postma 2020, Nieuwhof 2023).

Back to the CPC at the mouth of the River Rhine. More can be speculated about the person Radulf after whom the settlement Rothulfuashem was named. Was he just a so-called big man or even a king? He must have lived in the eighth century, and we know he had possessions in Hoverathorp (near the present-day town of Katwijk) too, together with a person named Erulf or Herulf (family?) who, in turn, had possessions further upstream the rivers near the present-day town of Houten in province Utrecht. Radulf, together with his wife (?) Aldburga, also gave donations to the bishopric of Utrecht. Later, in the ninth century, possessions around Rothulfuashem were in the hands of the nobles Gerulfings, the future counts of West Frisia after Viking rule in Frisia had ended in 885. In the year 1101, this dynasty of the Gerulfings would rename themselves counts of Holland. Are, therefore, the Gerulfings descendants of the big man Radulf? In the first half of the twelfth century, an abbey was founded at Rijnsburg, underscoring the historical importance of this area concerning the ruling elite.

Read also our post The Abbey of Egmond and the Rise of the Gerulfing Dynasty to learn more about the birth of Holland out of West Frisia.


Migration Period North Sea area
Frisia in the Early Middle Ages

Taking into account the fact that the events of Beowulf can be traced back to the beginning of the sixth century, the fact that the grandson of Wodan, the famous Hengest himself, was present at the scene, and the fact that this lone warrior, together with his brother Horsa, must have staged their invasion of Britain between 449 and 455, King Finn is commonly placed around the year 450. Only a few decades before, at the end of the Migration Period, the abandoned and empty tidal marshlands of the southern coast of the North Sea were re-populated with peoples from further to the east (Germany) and the north (southern Scandinavia), mixing with the very few existing original Frisians (i.e. Frisii or Fresones) still left. The new peoples who called themselves Frisians too.

Maybe Finn's father Folcwald was one of the early immigrants re-populating the nearly empty wetlands of ancient Frisia and who adopted the name Frisian. Read our posts It all began with piracy or A severe case of inattentional blindness: the Frisian tribe’s name to find an explanation as to why the name Frisia stuck in history.

We should, in the context of Finn's seat of power, also mention the Thron der Marsch ('throne of the marshlands'). It is a wooden chair of a 65 centimeters high made of a single log, and dated to the early fifth century. The provenance of the throne is the Fallward terp or Wurt in Land Wursten (Peek, et al 2022). Not only does this coincide exactly with the time when Finn ruled, but also with the era and area from which the Saxons migrated west to Frisia and England. If not Finn's throne, perhaps a similar one was part of his regalia. Today the stately chair can be admired in the Museum Burg Bederkesa, Landkreis Cuxhaven.

wandering of the peoples

Research is pretty conclusive about the fact that the salt marshes of northern Netherlands, especially those in the present-day province of Friesland, were nearly abandoned during the period ca. 325-425. Neither the collapse of the Roman Empire nor arrival of the Huns in Europe caused the coastal people of the tidal marshlands to move. Climate change, however, did. It was the deterioration of the environment that had a major impact on living conditions. The sea level rose in the fourth century, making drainage of sweet water from the hinterland difficult and causing the interior to turn into malaria-infected swamps, no longer suitable for living or agriculture. People emigrated from more inland. The disappearance of inland habitation affected habitation at the Wadden Sea shores as well, since broad village-networks were essential to survive. Among other, the Frisians migrated south from the middle of the third century and settled in the Lower River Rhine area, but also moved up the River Scheldt in the region of Flanders (Dhaeze 2019).

Having said that, some terps (i.e. manmade dwelling mounds) in the present-day province of Friesland show a continuation of a modest population throughout the Migration Period. Terp-villages such as Driesumer-terp, Hatsum, Hogebeintum, Jelsum, Rasquert, Marssum, and Wijnaldum-Tjitsma exhibit this trend. Although habitation on terps like Dongjum and Peins discontinued, these higher and fertile terps were still being used as arable land during this era, indicating modest habitation in the vicinity of these terps still present.

Habitation in the terp region of Ommelanden in the northeast of the Netherlands decreased strongly, as demonstrated by the archaeological excavation of the terp Ezinge. The same is true for the terp region of north-western Germany. Both regions were probably less affected than the area of the province of Friesland during the fourth century. Archaeological research has shown habitation that continued on the terp (called Wurt or Warf in the region of Ostfriesland) of Fedderson in Germany, for example.

The environment of western Frisia along the North Sea coast, which is more or less the present-day region of Kennemerland and the (former) islands of Texel and Wieringen, also deteriorated in the fourth century. This might be due to land loss caused by the North Sea moving east, combined with a period of drought and thus stronger dune formation, rendering the coastal zone useless for agriculture. This was also the case for the area further to the south between the mouth of the River Rhine and the mouth of the River Meuse. A significant decrease in population also occurred here in the fourth century, making it comparable to the salt marsh area in the north. However, habitation continued modestly along the North Sea coast, for example, as it did at Oosterbuurt near the town of Castricum, at Dorregeest near the town of Uitgeest, and close to the town of Schagen.

Most research adopts a two-migration-wave theory during the end of the Migration Period. The first wave was that of the Angles and the Saxons at the turn of the fourth and fifth centuries. Especially the Elbe-Weser triangle was an important cradle of the new settlers, the new Frisians. Probably, they admixed with the few original Frisians (Frisii) left. The second wave followed closely, around the second half of the fifth century, and was composed of Jutes and southern Norwegians. Probably, they admixed with the previous mixture. These immigrant waves filled the near-empty lands with, as said, some small pockets of original, pre-Roman Frisians still being there. The originals (Frisii or Fresones) being a people of maybe mixed Celtic and Germanic cultural composition. Read our posts Barbarians riding to the Capital to claim rights on farmland and The Celtic-Frisian heritage: There's no dealing with the Wheel of Fortune.

Other theories suggest that original Frisian tribes re-entered the tidal marshlands from what is now the northern part of the province of Noord Holland. From the Frisian pockets, as described above, where habitation had continued during the Migration Period. This secondary migration movement does not exclude the two-migration-wave theory, we think. It can have been a mixture of both. Original or Old Frisians from what would soon become West Frisia (more or less the modern provinces of Noord Holland and of Zuid Holland) together with Old Saxon and, to a lesser extent, southern Scandinavian peoples re-populating the vast salt marshes of the north.

terp culture Germany the Netherlands
impression of the terp region in Germany and the Netherlands during the Early Middle Ages by Ulco Glimmerveen

So, making the Frisians a cocktail of Old Celtic-Frisians (Frisii or Fresones), Old Saxons, Angles, Jutes, and southern Scandinavians, re-populating the coastal zone from the region of Flanders in Belgium in the south all the way to the River Weser in Germany in the north, including the lower central river lands in the Netherlands in the fifth century. Read our post Have a Frisians cocktail to find out more about the origin of the Frisians.

When looking at the golden and silver artifacts the new Frisians produced, they combined style elements of the different cultures around them. Resulting in, for example, the beautiful fibulae in the second quarter of the seventh century. A specific style element in fibulae was the so-called 'kidney shape'; two raven heads bowed towards each other. This suggests that by then a solid, new identity was established, and the new Frisians were detached from the dominant Scandinavian elite of Jutes and southern Norwegians.

It's also the century when Frisia politically expanded all the way to Sincfala, the present south-western border of the Netherlands with Belgium. Additionally, it was the period that Frisia started wrestling with its, at the end too powerful, Frankish opponent in the south. This was a period of social and political change, which also resulted in increased soil depositions and grave gifts, especially of swords and other weaponry. This was an expression of the emphasis that was placed within the communities on warrior culture and communication with the world of the gods.


The Inconvenient Truth - It should be noted that the dispute, often named 'the inconvenient truth,' about the hiatus and origin of the Frisians during most of the fourth and early fifth centuries concerns mainly archaeologists and historians within the province of Friesland in the Netherlands. Archaeologist Pieter Boeles (1873-1961) from Assen in the province of Drenthe, who formulated this theory for the first time in 1951, was dismissed for being elitist and anti-Frisian (Betten 2018). Surprise, surprise, we hear you think. Yes, the study of history is, first of all, politics.

Archaeological research in the terp regions of north-western Germany is, as yet, less developed and could, in time, of course, give us new important insights on these aspects too. Let us hope for that. Thank the Valletta Treaty of 1992.


building tradition tidal marshlands Frisia ca. 450-800, Yeb Hettinga Museum at Firdgum

Whatever the exact story, try to picture new tribes form the east and north entering the nearly deserted, wet, and treeless salt marsh area in the early fifth century. With scattered old, abandoned house platforms, terps, and low tidal dykes scattered everywhere. Sometimes the remains of old wooden houses still visible, and abandoned terps are being used as fields for producing crops by small original Frisian communities still present. Crops like elderberries, seashore aster, cabbage, beet, and oil from rape and camelina. The newcomers from the east and north brought in their livestock of cattle and sheep and reoccupied the former house platforms and terps. They also introduced a new house building tradition with walls made of clay sods instead of wood and loam, as the tradition previously used to be (Betten 2018). How did the encounters with the few original Frisians still present go, we wonder? Violently or peacefully? Everything must have been a fascinating sight to witness.

Even if King Finn never existed, although -and with the support of Tolkien (Bliss 1982)- the odds are otherwise, he and his story were (and are) legendary in North Sea culture all the same. It became part of the new ancestral tales of the shaken-and-stirred peoples of the North Sea, following the turbulent Migration Period. Know, however, that this picture of massive shifts of peoples during the Migration Period has been nuanced by scholars. Nevertheless, the slaughter of King Finn was an event even before the Middle Ages had started. And it was well-known. Obviously, because the tale concerned both a king of a strong maritime confederacy of sea people, the Frisians, and the legendary future invader of Britain, Hengest (and Horsa).

vendel helmet Hallum Frisia
reconstruction of the sixth century AD Vendel Helmet Hallum, the Netherlands

a sea tribe

The Frisians were a people that had emerged during the Migration Period as the most prominent tribe dominating the North Sea with their ships, sails, nautical skills, cultural background, and goods. Trading and maintaining relationships, including between the British Isles, southern Scandinavia, and the Continent. Not for nothing, the word 'freight,' or in the Dutch language vracht, originates from the Old Frisian language. The North Sea, a sea that was named mare Fresicum all the way through the Early Middle Ages.

At ipsi, cum navigarent circa Pictos, vastaverunt Orcades insulas, et venerunt et occupaverunt regiones plurimas ultra Mare Frenessicum usque ad confinium Pictorum.

But when they sailed around the Picts, they wasted the Orkney islands, and they went and occupied many regions past the Frisian Sea till the border of the Picts (Historia brittonum of Nennius, eighth/ninth century AD quoting Gildas, sixth century AD).

Mare Fresicum, id est quod inter nos Scottosque est.

The Frisian Sea, that lies between us and the Scots (Historia brittonum of Nennius, eighth/ninth century AD).

It were not only the Frisians who emerged in this region at the end of the Migration Period. Also the Salian Franks, mentioned already, entered history. More inland south of Frisia, region Hamaland in current province Gelderland was the cradle of the Merovingian empire. From here the Franks expanded south to present-day Belgium laying there the foundation of Francia and France. Do not tell the French.

Now, how unique is all the above already? And you still have to read the story of the historic battle of King Finn below, which we tried to postpone as long as possible in this post. Try to visualize all of the above and how it must have looked when reading about the battle at Finnsburh. Tolkien did anyway. He (re)created in his books an ancient, mythical world and he specifically studied the dramatic story of King Finn. Tolkien's study 'Finn and Hengest' was posthumously published.

3. The Freswæle at Finnsburh

Where was the fuss all about in the hall of young King Finn almost 1,600 years ago? Was it an ordinary power struggle? Was it just the usual treacherous family-in-law? Was it a tragic love story? Or was it the famous Hengest, founder of the Kentish royal dynasty, the Oiscingas, who had bigger plans for himself?

king Finn and agitated Jutes by Peter Nicolai Abo

Unfortunately, it's difficult to reconstruct exactly what happened. Especially since the bard or minstrel who tells or sings the story of Finnsburh to Beowulf and the other gathered warriors assumes his mead-drinking audience had a general knowledge of the famous story already, and he therefore skips a lot of context. Modern bureaucrats would say: "Give me only a few bullets." The same holds true for the Finnsburg Fragment. This compression by the poet of Beowulf makes understanding the tale difficult. Read also our post about these Frisian bards. Nevertheless, here is a valid historical version of the course of events:

The battle

King Finn, son of Folcwald, and young king of Frisia, is married to Hildeburh. Queen Hildeburh is a daughter of King Haelfdane Hoc, a descendant of the heraldic Scyldingas and ruler of the Hocingas. It's unclear who the Hocingas exactly were, but they were a Danish people. The marriage of Hildeburh can be considered a typical Germanic friðowebba, literally 'peace weaver' or what would be in the modern Mid-Frisian language still fredeweb; creating kinship, ties and thus promoting peace through their mixed offspring, in this case the Frisians and the (Half-)Danes.

When the young prince and Hælfdane, brother of Hildeburh and thus brother-in-law of King Finn, stayed at the stronghold of King Finn in Frisia for the celebration of Yule, a first fight broke out between the Danes and the Frisians. This happened about twenty years after the marriage of Hildeburh with Finn, and their son must have been of that age probably.

Reasons for this initial fight are not given. But daring politics of King Finn may have played a role. Finn established an alliance with the Danes through the marriage with Hildeburh. At the same time, it was King Finn who accepted the Jutes (named Eotan) in his land and in his service. The Jutes had lost their last king and were adrift in the region. The fact that Hengest accompanied the Danes provoked the Jutish party of Finn. Hengest wasn't a nobody. He would later, together with his brother Horsa, lead the invasion of Britain. But more importantly in this Shakespearean drama, Hengest was of royal stock and even a descendant of King Wihtlæg of the Angles. And it was King Wihtlæg who exterminated the dynasty of the Jutes only a couple of generations before. So, the Jutes might still have had some resentment towards Hengest.

The battle lasted five days in which Prince Hnaef, the son of Finn, and sixty other warriors were besieged in the hall by Jutish warriors in the service of King Finn. It might very well be that King Finn gave the hall to Prince Hnaef and his men in order to be able to defend themselves against the Jutes. At the end of the battle, Prince Hnaef was killed. King Finn suffered the loss of many men and even of his son. A son born out of the marriage with Hildeburh and who probably was raised by Hnaef with the Danes. No name of the son is given, alas.

Famous adventurer Hengest took over command from Prince Hnaef. King Finn and Hengest himself agreed on a peace treaty, whereby Finn had to give treasure to the Danes to compensate for the death of Prince Hnaef and to keep the peace. Prince Hnaef and the son of Finn were cremated side by side on a pyre in Frisia (see note below) and the Danes returned to their lands. Hengest, perhaps exiled already before the battle by his own people the Angles, stayed the winter with queen Hildeburh at the hall of Finn.

After the winter, the Danes returned. They demanded loyalty from Hengest and therefore that he would avenge yet Prince Hnaef despite the treaty made with King Finn. Hengest chose to side with the Danes. In this second fight, King Finn was slaughtered. After the fight, Hengest and the Scyldinga warriors took Queen Hildeburh back to the raiders' home; the home of the Danes. Ending the peace web with the Frisians.

The above is based on the texts of Beowulf, the Fragment, and on the research of Tolkien and Bliss. We avoided naming too many names of warriors, etc., because it would become very confusing.

According to Tolkien, King Finn and Prince Hnaef were caught up in the circumstances of an internal Jutish feud. The Finnsburh episode took place in a time when the Danes gained control over the entire Danish archipelago, including Jutland. The Jutes had lost their kingdom for good. It explains why the conquered Jutes were called the half-Danes. Almost rudely implying they were lesser Danes (Pollington 2023). These were the Jutes who sided Hnaef at Finnsburh. Other Jutes had fled from the Danes and lived in exile. They had moved west, to the coastal lands of the Frisians. These Jutes, who had aligned themselves with King Finn in the story, were the so-called free Jutes. Probably, the half-Danes and the free Jutes in exile "hated each other's guts" (Shippey 2022, Pollington 2023).

Tolkien suggests that Hengest played a double role by breaking the treaty and not upholding his oath. This is in contrast to King Finn. So Tolkien backed Finn. Yes, the founder of England, the warrior Hengest, was an oath-breaker and backstabber. It's said to be an omen of the Brexit that was to come. And it was also Hengest who, once he moved to England with his brother Horsa, committed foul play during peace negotiations. Secretly, he and his men took daggers to the negotiation table and, by the order of Hengest, killed all the Britons. It's known as Brad y Cyllyll Hirion 'the treason of the long knives'.

But maybe we should give Hengest some more credit. When it comes to Hengest's role, we find the arguments of Bliss (1982) more convincing, namely that Hengest wasn't a Jute but an Angle. Not your regular Angle either. He was a descendant of the Angle dynasty. Tolkien, namely, assumed Hengest was a Jute, since Old English historical sources say it was the Jutes who invaded Kent, deducting Hengest was a Jute too, although the old texts do not say so. If Hengest was an Angle, he too might have been caught up by the circumstances, and his loyalty was literally demanded with significant pressure by the Danes to avenge the death of Prince Hnaef. Hengest's situation after the battle became or stayed precarious. Not wanted anymore by the Frisians, the Jutes, and probably earlier already not by his own people, the Angles, too.

Only shortly before Finn's death, around the year 410 when the Romans pulled out of Britannia, Briton chiefs had recruited (also) Jutes, Angles, and Saxon mercenaries to defend themselves against the Picts and the Gaels. After that, the word was spread on the Continent by these mercenaries that the land overseas was fertile and the Britons were cowards. Just a few years after the battle of Finnsburh, Hengest and his brother Horsa staged their attack on Britain. Coincidence?

funeral of King Finn
funeral of King Finn of Frisia
But, if you don't like politics, it can still be a tragic love story, between Hildeburh and Finn. It's up to you!

Became curious and want to read it yourself? Please find further below the two original texts of the Finnsburh Fragment and the Beowulf Finnsburh episode together with an English translation.

We can also highly recommend you to read the (translated) Beowulf, if you want to have a vivid picture of how the strongly related culture of the Frisians must have been in the pre- and Early Middle Ages. Not without reason, Tolkien, the creator of the Lord of the Rings, had a special interest in the Battle of Finnsburh, as described in the epic Beowulf and the Fragment. For example, by reading Beowulf, you will learn that pre- and early-medieval society was a gift economy. Rings, actually bracelets, made of silver or gold, were broken and the pieces were given as part of building or reinforcing alliances. Moreover, swords of important warriors or kings had two rings attached to the pommel, the so-called rings-swords mentioned earlier in this post. Kings, overkings, and other chiefs were therefore often alternatively described as 'ring givers' or 'ring breakers'. Indeed: lords of rings. Who does not want to belong to the inner circle? Now, you will also understand why a marriage in the North Sea area is an alliance of consent, sealed with the exchange of rings, to this very day.


Note 1 - Intriguingly, in the Free State of Bavaria, in the southeast of Germany, the events of the fight at the Finnsburh are also being remembered. Here, for many generations, a noble family named its children after Hnaef and Hoc, who were main characters of the battle (Hammer 2005, Sheppey 2022).

Note 2 - More Frisian kings: The oldest Frisian kings known by name lived in the Late Iron Age, namely Verritus and Malorix. They lived in the first century AD. Next after Verritus and Malorix is King or dux 'warlord' Corsold. He lived around the year 500. He wasn't a king of Frisia but had a small kingdom in Brittany. King Audulf, written in Latin as Audulfus, lived in the sixth century and is known from coins found in Central Netherlands. Another early medieval king is King Aldgisl, who lived in the seventh century. Perhaps the father of King or Duke Radbod, who lived at the turn of the seventh and eighth centuries. The final king on the list is King or Duke Poppo, who lived at the beginning of the eighth century.

Note 3 - In this post, we followed the general conception that warrior Hengest invaded Britain as it is written in historic documents. Recently, some scholars suggest Britain wasn't invaded as such after the Romans had pulled out in the year 410. The material culture of the Brits only became disconnected from the Mediterranean one and re-oriented itself towards the North Sea culture. Thus explaining the northern influences. Hengest and his men were therefore not invaders but presumably mercenaries. Hiring mercenaries from the Germanic continent had been the practice for centuries under the Romans and probably continued (Oosthuizen 2019). Read also our post Frisian mercenaries in the Roman Army.

Note 4 - In the epic Beowulf, Prince Hnaef and the son of King Finn are cremated on a pyre. This was probably an exceptional practice in the flat, treeless salt marshes of Frisia. If you want to learn more about the burial practices of the sea people in the terp region during this era, read our post How to bury your mother-in-law.

Suggested music

Eminem, Revenge IX (2023)

Further reading

Alexander, M., Beowulf. A verse Translation (2001)

Bazelmans, J., By Weapons Made Worthy. Lords, Retainers and their relationship in Beowulf (1999)

Bazelmans, J., Zijn de Friezen wel Friezen? (1998)

Beach, S., Loss and Recompense: Responsibilities in Beowulf (1992)

Besteman, J.C., Bos, J.M. & Heidinga, H.A., Graven naar Friese koningen. De opgravingen in Wijnaldum (1992)

Betten, E., Terpen- en Wierdenland (2018)

Bliss, A. (ed.), Tolkien, J.R.R. Finn and Hengest. The Fragment and the Episode (1982)

Bremmer, J.H., Frisians in ‘Beowulf’ — ‘Beowulf’ in Frisia: The Vicissitudes of Time (2004)

Brooks, S. & Harrington S., The Kingdom and People of Kent AD 400-1066. Their History and Archaeology (2010)

Clerinx, H., De god met de maretak. Kelten en de Lage Landen (2023)

Derks, T. & Roymans, N. (eds.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition; Bazelmans, J., The early-medieval use of the ethnic names from classical antiquity. The case of the Frisians (2009)

Dhaeze, W., The Roman North Sea and Channel Coastal Defence. Germanic Seaborne Raids and the Roman Response (2019)

Dickerson, M.T., The Finnsburg Encounter (1991)

Dijkstra, M.F.P., Rondom de mondingen van de Rijn en Maas. Landschap en bewoning tussen de 3de en de 9de eeuw in Zuid-Holland, in het bijzonder de Oude Rijnstreek (2011)

Eerden, van R., De vaart der volkeren. Synthese van de archeologie van Noord-Holland in het eerste millennium (2023)

Gerritsen, W.P. & Melle, van A.G., Van Aiol tot de Zwaanridder. Personages uit de middeleeuwse verhaalkunst en hun voortleven in literatuur, theater en beeldende kunst (1993)

Giles, J.A. (transl.), History Of The Britons (Nennius, Historia Brittonum) (2000)

Goede, de A., Redbad. Koning van Friesland (2018)

Green, D.H. & Siegmund, F. (eds.), The Continental Saxons from the Migration Period to the tenth century. An ethnographic Perspective (2003)

Hammer, C.I., Hnaef and Hoc in Bavaria: Early Medieval Prosopography and Heroic Poetry (2005)

Heeringen, van R.M. & Velde, van der H.M. (eds.), Struinen door de duinen. Synthetiserend onderzoek naar de bewoningsgeschiedenis van het Hollands duingebied op basis van gegevens verzameld in het Malta-tijdperk (2017)

Heerma van Voss, L., Michael Pye’s Edge of the World. Een succesvolle, maar mislukte geschiedenis van de Noordzee (2016)

Higham, N.J. & Ryan, M.j., The Anglo-Saxon World (2013)

Hines, J., The Role of the Frisians during the Settlement of the British Isles (2001)

IJssennagger, N.L., Between Frankish and Viking: Frisia and Frisians in the Viking Age (2017)

Kantelhardt, S.R., Der Bote des Königs. Die Britannien-saga 1 (2023)

Koning, de J., Trans Flehum. Wijnaldum, Den Burg, Texel, Westergo: het Vlie als verbinder en grens (2018)

Klaeber, Fr. (ed.), Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg (1922)

Leyser, H., A short history of the Anglo-Saxons (2017)

Matto, M. & Delanty, G. The Word Exchange – translation of the Exeter Book (2011)

McClure, E., British place-names in their historical setting (1910)

McNamara, J., Beowulf and Hygelac: problems for fiction in history (1976)

Mommsen, Th. (ed.), Historia brittonum (1892-1898)

Nicolay, J.A.W., Nieuwe bewoners van het terpengebied en hun rol bij de opkomst van Fries koningschap. De betekenis van gouden bracteaten en bracteaatachtige hangers uit Friesland (vijfde-zevende eeuw na Chr.) (2005)

Nicolay, J.A.W. & Boer, de J., Roem voor de eeuwigheid. Een vroegmiddeleeuwse zwaardknop uit Friesland (2019)

Nicolay, J.A.W., Oortmerssen, van G., Os, van B. & Nobles, G., Een Vendelhelm uit Hallum? Verslag van een archeologische zoektocht (2010)

Nicolay, J.A.W. & Pelsmaeker, S., De Vendelhelm uit Hallum: een experimentele reconstructie (2018)

Nicolay, J.A.W., Pelsmaeker, S., Postma, D. & Veenstra, H., Hallum: ‘nieuwe Friezen’ in beeld (2018)

Nieuwenhuijsen, K., Lex Frisionum. Inleiding (2010)

Nieuwhof, A., De lege vierde eeuw. Jaarverslagen van de Vereniging voor terpenonderzoek (2016)

Nieuwhof, A., Ezinge in de vroege middeleeuwen (2023)

Nijboer, A.J. & Nicolay, J.A.W., Een wierde met een grafveldwierde te Rasquert (Gr). Archeologische gegevens van 300 voor tot 1500 na Chr. (2023)

Nijdam, H., A Comparison of the Injury Tariffs in the Early Kentish and the Frisian Law Codes (2014)

Oosthuizen, S., The Emergence of the English (2019)

Paine, L., The sea and civilization. A maritime history of the world (2013)

Peek, C., Hüser, A. & Meier, U.M., Die Gräber der Fallward (2022)

Pestell, T., The Kingdom of East Anglia, Frisia and Continental Connections, c. AD 600-900 (2014)

Pollington, S., The mead-hall community (2011)

Pollington, S., Tom Shippey Explains the Finnsburg Legend (via Tolkien!) (2023)

Postma, D., House plan analysis Hallum-Hellema (Friesland). A three-dimensional reconsideration of the early medieval turf buildings (2020)

Pye, M., The Edge of the World. How the North Sea made us who we are (2014)

Renswoude, van O., De Huigen en het Humsterland (2022)

Renswoude, van O., Etymologie Finn (2017)

Renswoude, van O., Ravenroem (2020)

Schiffels, S. et al, Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history (2016)

Schousboe, K. (ed.), Odin with Horns, Birds or Dragons? Medieval Histories (2016)

Schuyf, J., Heidense heiligdommen. Zichtbare sporen van een verloren verleden (2019)

Shippey, T., Beowulf and the North before the Vikings (2022)

Tebo, A., Break The Beast (2023)

Tol, A.J., De Horn, locatie grafveld-noord, Gemeente Rijnsburg. Archeologisch vooronderzoek: een inventariserend veldonderzoek (proefsleuven) (2006)

Tolkien, J.R.R., The Silmarillion (1977)

Tuuk, van der L., Radbod. Koning in twee werelden (2018)

Vermaat, R., The sources on Vortigern - The Text of ‘Nennius’: Historia Brittonum (website)

Versloot, A.P., De herbewoning van de Friese kwelders en terpnamen. Een onderzoek naar mogelijke verbanden (2021)

Versloot, A.P., The Runic Frisian vowel system. The earliest history of Frisian and Proto-Insular North Frisian (2014)

Weale, M.E. & Weiss, D.A. & Jager, R.F. & Bradman, N. & Thomas, M.G., Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration (2002)

Webster, C., Hengest. The epic saga of the founding of the English Nation (2012)

Wiersma, J.P., Friesche Mythen en Sagen (1937)

Willemsen, A., Gouden Middeleeuwen. Nederland in de Merovingische wereld, 400-700 na Chr. (2014)

Woolf, A. (transl.), Historia Brittonum: a student translation (2015)


The Finnsburh Fragment

(...) hornas byrnað? Hnæf hléoþrode ðá heaþogeong cyning: né ðis ne dagað éastan né hér draca ne fléogeð né hér ðisse healle hornas ne byrnað. Ac hér forþ berað, fugelas singað, gylleð gráeghama, gúðwudu hlynneð, scyld scefte oncwyð. Nú scýneð þes móna waðol under wolcnum; nú árísað wéadáeda ðé ðisne folces níð fremman willað. Ac onwacnigeað nú, wígend míne, habbað éowre linda, hicgeaþ on ellen, winnað on orde, wesað on móde. Ðá árás mænig goldhladen ðegn, gyrde hine his swurde; ðá tó dura éodon drihtlice cempan Sigeferð and Éaha, hyra sword getugon and æt óþrum durum Ordláf and Gúþláf and Hengest sylf hwearf him on láste. Ðá gýt Gárulf Gúðere stýrde, ðæt hé swá fréolíc feorh forman síþe tó ðáere healle durum hyrsta ne báere nú hyt níþa heard ányman wolde ac hé frægn ofer eal undearninga déormód hæleþ hwá ðá duru héolde. Sigeferþ is mín nama, cweþ hé. Ic eom Secgena léod, wreccea wíde cúð, fæla ic wéana gebád heordra hilda. Ðé is gýt hér witod swæþer ðú sylf tó mé sécean wylle. Ðá wæs on healle wælslihta gehlyn, sceolde cellod bord cénum on handa, bánhelm berstan -buruhðelu dynede- oð æt ðáere gúðe Gárulf gecrangealra áerest eorðbúendra Gúðláfes sunu, ymbe hyne gódra fæla hwearflícra hráew. Hræfen wandrode sweart and sealobrún. Swurdléoma stód swylce eal Finnisburh fýrenu wáere. Ne gefrægn ic náefre wurþlícor æt wera hilde sixtig sigebeorna sél gebáeran né néfre swétne medo sél forgyldan ðonne Hnæfe guldan his hægstealdas. Hig fuhton fíf dagas, swá hyra nán ne féol drihtgesíða, ac hig ðá duru héoldon. Ðá gewát him wund hæleð on wæg gangan, sáede þæt his byrne ábrocen wáere heresceorp unhrór and éac wæs his helm ðýrel. Ðá hine sóna frægn folces hyrde, hú ðá wígend hyra wunda genáeson oððe hwæþer ðáera hyssa (...)

(...) gables burning? Then proclaimed Hnaef, the battle-young king: This is not the eastern dawn nor is a dragon flying here nor here does this hall's gables burn. But here they bear forth, birds screech, the grey-coated wolf bays, the war-wood clashes, the shield answers the shaft. Now the moon shines, wandering under the clouds; now woe-deeds come to pass which this people's hatred desires to fulfill. But awake now, my warriors, grasp your linden-wood shields, resolve upon courage, trive to the vanguard, be high-spirited. Then arose many a gold-laden thane, girded his sword then moved to the door the noble champions Sigeferth and Eaha, drew their swords, and at the other door, Ordlaf and Guthlaf and Hengest himself came just behind them. Then yet Garulf directed Guthere that he so excellent a life at the first journey to the doors of the hall, armored, should not venture since now one hard in hatred wished to take it away; but he asked over all, openly, the daring-hearted hero, who held the door. Sigeferth is my name, said he. I am a man of the Sedgean, an adventurer widely known, I have endured many misfortunes, fierce battles. Even now appointed here for you which thing for yourself from me you will attain. Then was in the hall the tumult of carnage, the round shield-board must in the hands of the bold, the bone-helm burst -the planks of the fortress resounded- until in the battle Garulf fell the first of all of the dwellers in the land, Guthlaf's son, around him many good mortals' carcasses. The raven hovered sweart and shimmering-dark. Sword-light stood as if all of Finnesburh were in flames. I have never heard that more worthily in battle of men of sixty victory-warriors bearing themselves better nor ever for sweet mead making better requital than to Hnaef gave his retainers. They fought for five days, as none of them fell, the troop-companions, but they held the doors. Then the hero went wounded, passing away, he said that his byrnie was broken apart, his war-garb weak and also his helmet was pierced. Then immediately asked him the protector of the people how well the warriors their wounds survived or which of the young men (...)

The Beowulf episode

(...) þær wæs sang ond sweg samod ætgædere fore Healfdenes hildewisan, gomenwudu greted, gid oft wrecen, ðonne healgamen Hroþgares scop æfter medobence mænan scolde be Finnes eaferum, ða hie se fær begeat, hæleð Healfdena, Hnæf Scyldinga, in Freswæle feallan scolde. Ne huru Hildeburh herian þorfte Eotena treowe; unsynnum wearð beloren leofum æt þam lindplegan, bearnum ond broðrum; hie on gebyrd hruron, gare wunde. þæt wæs geomuru ides! Nalles holinga Hoces dohtor meotodsceaft bemearn, syþðan morgen com, ða heo under swegle geseon meahte morþorbealo maga, þær heo ær mæste heold worolde wynne. Wig ealle fornam Finnes þegnas nemne feaum anum, þæt he ne mehte on þæm meðelstede wig Hengeste wiht gefeohtan, ne þa wealafe wige forþringan þeodnes ðegna; ac hig him geþingo budon, þæt hie him oðer flet eal gerymdon, healle ond heahsetl, þæt hie healfre geweald wið Eotena bearn agan moston, ond æt feohgyftum Folcwaldan sunu dogra gehwylce Dene weorþode, Hengestes heap hringum wenede efne swa swiðe sincgestreonum fættan goldes, swa he Fresena cyn on beorsele byldan wolde. ða hie getruwedon on twa healfa fæste frioðuwære. Fin Hengeste elne, unflitme aðum benemde þæt he þa wealafe weotena dome arum heolde, þæt ðær ænig mon wordum ne worcum wære ne bræce, ne þurh inwitsearo æfre gemænden ðeah hie hira beaggyfan banan folgedon ðeodenlease, þa him swa geþearfod wæs; gyf þonne Frysna hwylc frecnan spræce ðæs morþorhetes myndgiend wære, þonne hit sweordes ecg seðan scolde. Ad wæs geæfned ond icge gold ahæfen of horde. Herescyldinga betst beadorinca wæs on bæl gearu. æt þæm ade wæs eþgesyne swatfah syrce, swyn ealgylden, eofer irenheard, æþeling manig wundum awyrded; sume on wæle crungon. Het ða Hildeburh æt Hnæfes ade hire selfre sunu sweoloðe befæstan, banfatu bærnan ond on bæl don eame on eaxle. Ides gnornode, geomrode giddum. Guðrinc astah. Wand to wolcnum wælfyra mæst, hlynode for hlawe; hafelan multon, bengeato burston, ðonne blod ætspranc, laðbite lices. Lig ealle forswealg, gæsta gifrost, þara ðe þær guð fornam bega folces; wæs hira blæd scacen. Gewiton him ða wigend wica neosian, freondum befeallen, Frysland geseon, hamas ond heaburh. Hengest ða gyt wælfagne winter wunode mid Finne eal unhlitme. Eard gemunde, þeah þe he ne meahte on mere drifan hringedstefnan; holm storme weol, won wið winde, winter yþe beleac isgebinde, oþðæt oþer com gear in geardas, swa nu gyt deð, þa ðe syngales sele bewitiað, wuldortorhtan weder. ða wæs winter scacen, fæger foldan bearm. Fundode wrecca, gist of geardum; he to gyrnwræce swiðor þohte þonne to sælade, gif he torngemot þurhteon mihte þæt he Eotena bearn inne gemunde. Swa he ne forwyrnde woroldrædenne, þonne him Hunlafing hildeleoman, billa selest, on bearm dyde, þæs wæron mid Eotenum ecge cuðe. Swylce ferhðfrecan Fin eft begeat sweordbealo sliðen æt his selfes ham, siþðan grimne gripe Guðlaf ond Oslaf æfter sæsiðe, sorge, mændon, ætwiton weana dæl; ne meahte wæfre mod forhabban in hreþre. ða wæs heal roden feonda feorum, swilce Fin slægen, cyning on corþre, ond seo cwen numen. Sceotend Scyldinga to scypon feredon eal ingesteald eorðcyninges, swylce hie æt Finnes ham findan meahton sigla, searogimma. Hie on sælade drihtlice wif to Denum feredon, læddon to leodum. (...)

(...) Then song and music mingled sounds in the presence of Healfdene's head-of-armies and harping was heard with the hero-lay as Hrothgar's singer the hall-joy woke along the mead-seats, making his song of that sudden raid on the sons of Finn. Healfdene's hero, Hnaef the Scylding, was fated to fall in the Frisian slaughter. Hildeburh needed not hold in value her enemies' honor! Innocent both were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play, bairn and brother, they bowed to fate, stricken by spears; ‘twas a sorrowful woman! None doubted why the daughter of Hoc bewailed her doom when dawning came, and under the sky she saw them lying, kinsmen murdered, where most she had kenned of the sweets of the world! By war were swept, too, Finn's own liegemen, and few were left; in the parleying-place he could ply no longer weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest, and rescue his remnant by right of arms from the prince's thane. A pact he offered: another dwelling the Danes should have, hall and high-seat, and half the power should fall to them in Frisian land; and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald's son day by day the Danes should honor, the folk of Hengest favor with rings, even as truly, with treasure and jewels, with fretted gold, as his Frisian kin he meant to honor in ale-hall there. Pact of peace they plighted further on both sides firmly. Finn to Hengest with oath, upon honor, openly promised that woeful remnant, with wise-men's aid, nobly to govern, so none of the guests by word or work should warp the treaty, or with malice of mind bemoan themselves as forced to follow their fee-giver's slayer, lord-less men, as their lot ordained. Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman's taunt, that murderous hatred to mind recall, then edge of the sword must seal his doom. Oaths were given, and ancient gold heaped from hoard. The hardy Scylding, battle-thane best, on his bale-fire lay. All on the pyre were plain to see the gory sark, the gilded swine-crest, boar of hard iron, and athelings many slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell. It was Hildeburh's hest, at Hnaef's own pyre the bairn of her body on brands to lay, his bones to burn, on the bale-fire placed, at his uncle's side. In sorrowful dirges bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended. Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires, roared o'er the hillock: heads all were melted, gashes burst, and blood gushed out from bites of the body. Bale-fire devoured, greediest spirit, those spared not by war out of either folk: their flower was gone. Then hastened those heroes their home to see, friendless, to find the Frisian land, houses and high burg. Hengest still through the death-dyed winter dwelt with Finn, holding pact, yet of home he minded, though powerless his ring-decked prow to drive over the waters, now waves rolled fierce lashed by the winds, or winter locked them in icy fetters. Then fared another year to men's dwellings, as yet they do, the sun bright skies, that their season ever duly await. Far off winter was driven; fair lay earth's breast; and fain was the rover, the guest, to depart, though more gladly he pondered on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep, and how to hasten the hot encounter where sons of the Frisians were sure to be. So he escaped not the common doom, when Hun with "Lafing," the light-of-battle, best of blades, his bosom pierced: its edge was famed with the Frisian earls. On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise, on himself at home, the horrid sword-death; for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attack had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed, mourning their woes. Finn's wavering spirit bode not in breast. The burg was reddened with blood of foemen, and Finn was slain, king amid clansmen and the queen was taken. To their ship the Scylding warriors bore all the chattels the chieftain owned, whatever they found in Finn's domain of gems and jewels. The gentle wife o'er paths of the deep to the Danes they bore, led to her land. (...)


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