stage 2: West Frisia
River Lek (NL) to River IJ (NL)
From the Lek river to the IJ river and the town of Velsen (near the Netherlands' capitol Amsterdam) where the grand Roman Empire had to accept their limits and halted their expansion after the defeat against the Frisians (the minores Frisii). It's an landscape that has been dramatically changed in the High Middle Ages once commercial peat excavation started. Read our blog post The United Frisian Emirates and Black Peat
For a visual impression of this stage, click here.
section 2.1: Wijk bij Duurstede - Utrecht (PM)
section 2.2: Utrecht - Breukelen (PM)
section 2.3: Breukelen - Muiden
This stretch could opt for the true Frisian heartlands during the early Middle Ages. The present-day province Zuid Holland, the region Het Gooi and the city of Utrecht might very well have been the center of power of the Frisian kings. At the mouth of the river Old-Rhine, at Rijnsburg, a so-called Central-Place-Complex existed indicating an elite powerbase. A similar CPC is thought to have existed at the mouth of the river Meuse.
The suggested Frisia Coast Trail itinerary doen't pass the former strongholds at the coast. Instead, it will take you along the River Crooked Rhine and the River Vecht flows from the city of Wijk bij Duurstede (Dorestat) to the city of Utrecht to the castle of Muiden (also Muiderslot) at Lake IJssel (also IJsselmeer). This is an ancient trading route connecting the hinterlands of the kingdoms of Francia with the terp region in the north of Germany and the Netherlands, and from there with southern Scandinavia. It's also the region of the old gouw 'shire' Niftarlake where early-medieval West-Frisian counts had possessions but also the ancestors of Saint Ludger.
Of course, the city of Utrecht has a special place in Frisian history. From here the Franks converted the Frisians. It was the seat of the bishop 'governing' more-or-less the Sticht (present-day province Utrecht) and the present-day provinces Zuid Holland, Noord Holland and Friesland. Several monastic orders The city has been sacked by King Radbod in the eighth century AD.