stage 2: West Frisia
Lek river, Wijk bij Duurstede (NL) - IJ river, Velsen (NL)
From the Lek river to the IJ river and the town of Velsen (near the Netherlands' capitol Amsterdam) where the grand Roman Empire had to accept their limits and halted their expansion after the defeat against the Frisians (the minores Frisii).
For a visual impression of this stage, click here.
- Section Breukelen - Muiden.
This stretch could opt for the true Frisian heartlands during the early Middle Ages. The present-day province Zuid Holland, the region Het Gooi and the city of Utrecht might very well have been the center of power of the Frisian kings. At the mouth of the river Old-Rhine, at Rijnsburg, a so-called Central-Place-Complex existed indicating an elite powerbase. A similar CPC is thought to have existed at the mouth of the river Meuse.
The suggested Frisia Coast Trail itinerary doen't pass the former strongholds at the coast. Instead it will take you along the river Vecht flows from the city of Utrecht to the castle of Muiden (also Muiderslot) at Lake IJssel (also IJsselmeer). This is an ancient trading route connecting the hinterlands of the kingdoms of Francia with the terp region in the north of Germany and the Netherlands, and from there with southern Scandinavia. It's also the region of the old shire Niftarlake where it's known that the early-medieval West-Frisian counts had possessions but also the ancestors of Saint Ludger.
Of course the city of Utrecht has a special place in Frisian history. From here the Franks tried to convert the Frisians. It was the seat of the archbishop 'governing' more-or-less the Sticht (present-day province Utrecht) and the provinces Zuid Holland, Noord Holland and Friesland. Several monastic orders The city has been sacked by king Redbad (also Radbod) in the eighth century AD.