• Hans Faber

Merciless medieval merchants

Viking selling slave girl to Persian merchants
painting Tom Lovell

The earliest proof of Frisian merchants trading in slaves dates from the seventh century. It was Venerable Bede himself, the Father of English history, who documented this criminal act. It was a merchant doing business on the London markets, who also traded in slaves. In this blog post we shed some light on this dark chapter of history.

Venerable Bede, the Northumbrian monk, describes the whole affair in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum ‘the ecclesiastical history of the English people’, written around the year 730. This is, in short, the story:

It was in 679 that in the kingdom of Lindsey the Battle of the Trent took place. A battle between the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia. The kingdom of Mercia won, and ruled over that of Lindsey from then on.

The lower King Ælfwine of the kingdom of Deira was killed during the Battle of the Trent. One of Ælfwine’s thegns, named Imma, was struck down with many others. But he was not dead. Badly injured, he lay on the battlefield between the slain men for the whole night. The next day he regained consciousness, bounded his wounds a bit, and sat up. Then he was noticed by his enemies, the Mercian warriors of King Æthelred. They brought him to one of their chieftains, a nobleman of King Æthelred. Venerable Bede gives no name of the nobleman. Imma pretended to be a poor, married peasant and said he only brought supplies to the battlefield. The nobleman believed this and took him in his house. He promised to take care of his wounds. But, when Imma was to be bound to prevent him from fleeing, the fetters were loosed somehow.

The reason why Imma could not be bound, was because of his brother Tunna who was a priest. Tunna thought Imma had died in battle, and obviously started praying for the wellbeing of his brother’s soul. This was the reason Imma was mysteriously freed from his fetters all the time. The nobleman got suspicious and started to inquire with Imma. Now, Imma told him the truth. That he was a thegn of King Ælfwine, and that he had a brother-priest who was probably praying for him right now.

The nobleman could have killed him on the spot for his lies, and for the fact Imma was an enemy. He did not, because he had promised Imma before to take care of his wounds. Instead, the nobleman sold him to a Frisian merchant in London. Venerable Bede does not give the name of this Frisian trader, unfortunately. Neither does Bede say anything about the amount of silver the Frisian paid to the nobleman for the transaction. Then, after the transfer, no matter how hard the Frisian merchant tried, again no fetter stayed fastened on Imma. They all came loose automatically. Of course, still thanks to the prayers of his brother Tunna. Eventually, realizing things were unmanageable, the Frisian trader gave Imma the possibility to ransom himself.

early-medieval London

Imma turned to King Hlothhere of Kent. Apparently, there were some favorable family ties. Indeed, King Hlothhere helped him out with the needed money or silver, and Imma could pay his ransom to the Frisian businessman. Possibly, together with a compensation for the future loss of revenue of the merchant. After that, the thegn of King Ælfwine was free to go at last. Imma returned to his brother-priest Tunna, and to his land, which in the meantime was annexed by the Kingdom of Mercia.

As an anecdote, it is interesting to mention that a hundred years later, again a Frisian merchant in Britain pops up. This time in the city of York. It is not nice too, what he did. This merchant killed the son of a count. Because of this incident, the whole Frisian colony, apparently permanently living in York, had to leave the country. Cleryman Ludger, later Saint Ludger (read out posts Liudger, the first Frisian apostle and One of history’s enlightening hikes, that of Bernlef to read more about him) was instructed by Alcuin to accompany the Frisian merchants back home to Frisia. This to great chagrin of Ludger, who had just returned from Frisia, and had hoped to devote himself to study for a while. Now, much too quick, he ended up in barren, wet and heathen Frisia again. The story is recorded in the ninth-century Vita sancti Liudgerii.


Slaves were an integral part of early-medieval society. Taking slaves during battle or during a raid, was simply the thing you did. How important the trade in slaves was the Frisian traders, is hard to tell from the old texts. When large parts of Frisia became to fell under Frankish thus Christian rule, selling slaves to pagans was no longer allowed; Title XVII of the late eighth-century Lex Frisionum. Selling slave to fellow Christians, of course, was allowed still. Taking slaves was still a common practice during the Viking Age, centuries later. It even existed already during Late Antiquity. The Roman historian Tacitus described how sea pirates of the Usipi tribe were defeated in a battle on the River Rhine by the Frisians (Frisii or Fresones) in the year AD 82 and sold as slaves.

Slavery and racial discrimination (and worse), are in origin two separate things. Slavery was a universal practice and, at first, had nothing to do with color, religion or race. In the North Atlantic slave trade, the captors often recognized the nobility of their victims. When a bit later in time Vikings enslaved Gaels, Welsh, and Anglo-Saxons and forced them into a life of servitude in Iceland, these slaves were often remembered as ‘men of good family’. On the other hand, when Vikings robbed African slaves in what is now Spain and brought them to Ireland, they called them blámenn ‘blue men’, for the their dark skin. However, with the rise of the colonial powers in the Late Middle Ages, slavery and racism were merged, among other to justify the gross human exploitation and degradation. The genetic mirror of this past can still be seen, since genes do not lie (read our blog post With the White Rabbit down the Hole).

Slaves during the Early Middle Ages could buy themselves free if her or his kin raised the silver or gold for it. Relevant in this early-medieval story documented by Bede, is that the (surely still heathen) Frisian merchant acts as a middleman. It was the nobleman who made someone from a neighboring people (i.e. Northumbria) a slave, and who sold him to the merchant. The Frisian merchant probably could sell the (Christian) slave across the North Sea, at e.g. the emporia Dorestat or Birka, for a higher price. Nevertheless, if a slave was able to compensate the merchant before, the latter would set him free. Who knows, maybe even shake hands to seal the transaction. Now, the trader had space left on his ships to stock up, for example, some more high quality, English wool. It was after all about making a profit.

convoy Frisian merchants arriving in southern Scandinavia

If someone knows the name of the Frisian merchant concerned, let us know so we can indict him for the International Criminal Tribunal for Frisia (ICTF) in Aurich, Ostfriesland.

Note 1 - If you are interested in the Frisian merchants and the magnitude of the free trade of capitalistic Frisia during the Early Middle Ages, read our blog post Porcupines bore U.S. bucks.

Note 2 - The early-medieval law codes of northwestern Europe with their extensive injury tariffs, distinguish between different castes like noblemen, freemen and serfs. Read our blog post You killed a man? That’ll be 1 weregeld, please.

Note 3 - Concerning Frisians taking slaves and offering the possibility of ransom, on the Faroe Islands a children rhyme named Frísa Vísa ‘Frisian song’ exists about a girl being kidnapped by rude Frisians and who tries to ransom herself. Read our blog post Latið meg ei á Frísaland fordervast!

Accompanying music

Adventures of Stevie V, Dirty Cash (Money Talks) (1989)

Further Reading

Abulafia, D., The boundless sea. A human history of the oceans (2019)

Bakker, G., Friezen werden rijk dankzij de handel in slaven (1994)

Emmer, P.C., De Nederlandse slavenhandel 1500-1850 (2000)

Henkes, B., Sporen van het slavernijverleden in Fryslân (2021)

Hines, J., The Anglo-Frisian Question (2017)

Holder, A., The Venerable Bede. On the Song of Songs and Selected Writings (2011)

Hondius, D., Jouwe, N., Stam, D. & Tosch, J., The Netherlands Slavery Heritage Guide (2019)

Humphrey, A.C., “They Accuse Us of Being Descended from Slaves” Settlement History, Cultural Syncretism, and the Foundation of Medieval Icelandic Identity (2009)

Kok, de G., Walcherse ketens. De trans-Atlantische slavenhandel en de economie van Walcheren, 1755-1780 (2020)

Nijdam, H., Law and Political Organization of the Early Medieval Frisians (c. AD 600-800) (2021)

Credit featured image Tom Lovell.