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  • Writer's pictureHans Faber

Weladu the flying blacksmith

Master blacksmith Wayland is well-known from mythology. The blacksmith was kept captive on a small island in the sea and escaped from it with self-made wings. The Saxons, Anglo-Saxons, Norwegians, Icelanders, in fact, all the old Germanic peoples had their own medieval stories or artifacts relating to Wayland. Even the Franks did. All, except one. The Frisians. But, as it turns out, Frisia holds the oldest claim of all.

Several early-medieval gold solidi with Frisian personal names of former big men on it have been preserved. These are: Audulf, Had(d)a and Skanomodu. The first name is written in Latin as Audulfus and Audulfo, and found on several coins. The latter two names are written in Anglo-Frisian runes, respectively ᚻᚨᛞᚨ and ᛋᛣᚨᚾᛟᛗᛟᛞᚢ. The Skanomodu solidus is unprovenanced, and was part of a private collection George III (1738-1820), king of Great Britain and Ireland. The collection was donated to the British Museum in the year 1825. Lastly, there are the Glasgow coin and Folkestone coin with the runic inscription ᚫᚾIᚦᚢᛚᚢᚠᚢ reading aniulufu meaning something like 'ancestor of the wolf'. Both coins are golden tremisses, dated circa 650, and considered Frisian. Read our posts Porcupines bore U.S. bucks to learn more about these costly coins and who were behind the faces and Who’s afraid of Voracious Woolf? for more about the wolf coins.

Yet another solidus is known. It's an obscure gold coin carrying the Anglo-Frisian runic inscription ᚹᛖᛚᚪᛞᚢ. The runes have been deciphered, and the name of none other than Weladu was revealed. Indeed, Wayland the Smith, the trickster. It's dated between 575 and 600, or between 575 and 625 (opinions differ). The language in which Wela[n]du is written is Old Frisian and dates around the year 600 (Düwel 2018). With that, it belongs to one of the oldest artifacts testifying of the Frisian language. The ur graph ᚢ at the end of the name might also be just a scratch on the coin, so the name becomes Wela[n]d (Looijenga 2003, 2004).

In contrast to linguists and rune specialists, historians proper haven't paid much serious attention to this coin up to now, and therefore not much intell is available. For this reason, an APB was put out by Frisia Coast Trail on Twitter and Facebook in the month November 2019. Tips subsequently received, disclosed where the coin was being held. Scarce images of this coin were traced as well. The solidus is being kept in the Ostfriesisches Landesmuseum Emden in region Ostfriesland in the northwest of Germany. In 1948, the coin was accidentally discovered on a field near the small village of Schweindorf, also in region Ostfriesland (or was it Schwerinsdorf? See note 1). How this coin ended up in the field, is unknown. It might have been the result of quarrying a nearby terp, after which the fertile soil was dispersed over the land (Heinze 2022). By the way, the Ostfriesisches Landesmuseum Emden dates the coin older than most, and more inaccurate, namely: sixth century.


Wayland the Smith Weladu Frisia
ᚹᛖᛚᚩᛞᚢ / Weladu - AD 575-625

The coin has traces of being used as a pendant. As such, this was not an uncommon practice. Sporadically, scholars even suggest the coin might have been a bractaete, instead of being a solidus right from the start. We think originally it was a solidus, a coin. These solidi could be used as currency but had the function of prestige too, and were hoarded a lot. Not long after this solidus is dated, silver pennies or sceattas would be introduced in big numbers to facilitate the growing Frisian, supra-regional free trade. The runes are written backwards, by the way. Again, not an uncommon practice either.

1. The legend of Wayland the Smith

Who would have thought that besides the Flying 'Dutchman', a famous seventeenth-century Frisian seafarer, there's yet another flying Frisian in history? Who would have thought winged Wayland is possibly a Frisian blacksmith, and that his true native name is Weladu? Wayland was, as said, a master blacksmith, without having a master. He was a free man, serving no lord. Swinging his great hammer named Wadasearu, practising the dwarven craft. He forged the finest jewellery, swords and mail-shirts.

With the aim of forced labour, Wayland was overpowered by the cruel King Niðhad (also written Nithad), king of the Njars, while he was asleep. The Njars are a people who lived in present-day southern Sweden. Wayland was imprisoned on a small island in the sea. Both Wayland's hamstrings were cut, so he couldn't walk and escape from the island. Nor play soccer, for that matter. Other versions of the legend say his legs were broken and shattered by the king's sons with the hammer Wadasearu. During his captivity, Wayland was forced to forge the most beautiful jewellery, etc. He was even thrown into a deep snake pit by the king because he kept demanding to regain his freedom.

Wayland's luck changed when the two sons of the king grew too confident and came to the island, and visited his smithy. Obviously, Wayland killed them. From the boys' skulls he forged two goblets. From their eyes he forged jewels. From their teeth he forged a brooch. From their legs he forged walking sticks. The goblets he gave to the king, the jewels to the queen, and the brooch to the king’s daughter Böðvildr. She's also known as Beaduhilde. To sublimate his revenge, one day he intoxicated Princess Böðvildr and subsequently raped her. The princess got pregnant, of course. At last, from bird feathers Wayland made wings. To fabricate these wings, his brother Egill helped him out. With these feathers, he flew to King Niðhad. Wayland told the king all the horrible things he did to the king's offspring. Then, like a true Daedalus, or your Aerosmith of the Early Middle Ages if you like, he flew off. Never to be seen or heard of again. Until 1948 that is, when this Bentvlueghel's image was found near Schweindorf.


If you think the whole goblet-skull thing is too weird, read our post Groove is in the Hearth and shiver! Frisians hanging out with little saucers made of polished human skull around their necks.


There's much more to tell about the legend of Wayland. Like his love affair with the Valkyrie Swanhilde, just before he was abducted to the island. Also, that Wayland is the creator of the magic sword named Gram (also known as Mimming), and of a magic ring. Check it out on the web. It all is interesting too.

Different written sources have been preserved, each with a slightly different version of the life of Wayland or Weladu. And, with all the different sources and cultures, Wayland’s name is written in many ways: Wēland, Welund, Weyland, Völundr, Vølund, Vǫlundr, Velent, Wieland, Wiolant and, thus, Weladu. This list probably isn't comprehensive, neither are the old sources of the legends of Wayland mentioned below.

The first source to mention is the ninth or tenth-century Old English epic poem Beowulf. It recounts that Wéland is the maker of the battle-shirt, i.e. mail-shirt, which warrior Beowulf was wearing. And, Beowulf asked for it to be sent to King Hygelac if the battle took him. King Hygelac of the Geats, however, died before Beowulf did. Namely, during a raid in Frisia at the lower branches of the river Rhine, in the early sixth century.

Onsend Higeláce, gif mec hild nime, beaduscrúda betst, Þæt míne bréost wereð, hrægla sélest, Þæt is Hraédlan láf, Wélandes geweorc. Gaéð á wyrd swá hío scel. (Beowulf)

Send to Hygelac, if I am taken by battle, | the best of battle-shirts, that protects my breast, | choicest of garments, that is Hrethel’s relic, | Wayland’s work. Fate takes its course.

The second source is the Old English poem The Lament of Deor, or simply Deor. It's part of the tenth-century literary collection known as the Exeter Book or as the Codex Exoniensis.

Welund him be wurman, wræces cunnade, anhydig eorl, earfoÞa dreag. Hæfde him to gesiÞÞe, sorge ond longaÞ, wintercealde wræce; wean oft onfond, siÞÞan hine, Niðhad on, nede legde, swoncre seonobende, on syllan monn. Þæs ofereode, Þisses swa mæg. (Lament of Deor)

Wayland the blade-winder, suffered woe, | that steadfast man, knew misery. | Sorrow and longing, walked beside him, | wintered in him, kept wearing him down, | after Nithad, hampered and restrained him, | lithe sinew-bonds, on the better man. | That passed over, this can too.

The third source is the thirteenth-century, Old Icelandic Völundarkviða 'Wayland poem'. The fourth source is the mid-thirteenth century Old Norse Þiðrekssaga 'Didrik saga' also written as the Thidreksaga.

Besides written sources, also medieval artifacts 'speak' of Wayland the Smith. One artifact is a representation of the lay of Wayland depicted on the so-called Ardre VIII image-stone dated eighth or ninth century, and found in the area of Ardre at island Gotland, Sweden. Furthermore, what's known as the Franks Casket, is another artifact testifying of the legend. It's an Anglo-Saxon whale's bone casket dated early eighth century, and kept in the British Museum in London (see image below). It has many stories depicted on it. On the frontside left, a scene of the legend of Wayland the Smith is shown. Franks Casket got its name from Augustus Wollaston Franks who donated the casket to the British Museum. Lastly, three tenth-century stone crosses depicting the legend of Wayland have been preserved in the towns of Leeds, Sherburn-in-Elmet, and Bedal. All three in the UK.

However, the oldest artefact by far is the gold solidus with the Anglo-Frisian runic inscription Wela[n]du from Schweindorf. With that, the oldest, tangible proof testifying of blacksmith Wayland, or arguably historic more correct from now on, Weladu.

Franks Casket
Franks Casket - eighth century AD

2. Did Weladu forge the Wijnaldum fibula?

If you've ever seen the so-called Wijnaldum disc-on-bow brooch 'in the flesh' in the Fries Museum in the city of Leeuwarden, you cannot help wondering how it was made and who he or she was. Such craftsmanship! Check out our post Ornaments of the Gods found in a mound of clay to learn more about this brooch. Could it possibly be Weladu was somehow historical, knowing blacksmiths were highly valued in early-medieval society? And if so, could it be he made this brooch? The profession of a smith was even protected by law. The old Frisian law text, the Lex Frisionum dated ca. 790, protected the craftsman of metal as follows:

Qui harpatorem, qui cum circulo harpare potest, in manum percusserit, componat illud quarta parte maiore compositione, quam alteri eiusdem conditionis homini. Aurfici similiter. (Lex Frisionum)

Who hits the hand of a harp-player, who can play harp in a circle (audience), pays with a fourth bigger fine, as with another man of the same status. Goldsmiths likewise. (Lex Frisionum)

If we were to assume that the names on the solidi coins belonged to rulers or 'big men' who commissioned their production, and these men were still alive during the casting of their coins (since rulers usually didn't authorize the use of competitors or predecessors), then it can be inferred that (a) blacksmith Weladu lived during the time this gold solidus was issued. The coin, as previously mentioned, has an approximate date of around 600. Was Weladu a skilled blacksmith, who rose to fame and became a legend? According to Düwel & Nedoma (2023), it is more likely that the names on golden coins such as these belong to masters of the coins rather than rulers, which would support this theory. A variation of the theory suggests that it wasn't Weladu the Smith who created this solidus, but rather a (prominent) man who was named after the legendary blacksmith, and who had his name put on this coin.

An alternative explanation to the one where Weladu, either a ruler, master of coin, or the blacksmith himself, produced the solidus, is that the image on the coin represents the legend of Weladu. In this scenario, the creator, or the one who ordered the production of the solidus, wanted to depict the legend of the famous blacksmith (Oehrl 2011). The standing figure might be holding a snake in his hands. Furthermore, the figure is more or less confined in space by the fantasy Roman letters. These elements together would refer to the snake pit Weladu stayed in, according to the poem Deor. The words 'be wurman' in the poem Deor might be understood as referring to snakes. A translation not without controversy among learned experts, though. But according to other scholars, this whole snake-pit construct, including the interpretation of the poem Deor, is all too far-fetched (Nedoma 1990).

If the aforementioned theory is correct, it would mean that the legend of Wayland the Smith pre-dates 575-625. Unless, of course, the name Weladu was your average first name and had nothing to do with the legend, and therefor just coincidence.

We humble hikers would like to add to this discussion that this representation of Weladu is almost identical to the gold solidus of Had(d)a found in the town of Harlingen in province Friesland. If you adhere to the somewhat complicated snake-pit theory (Beck 1980), then the Had(d)a coin depicts Weladu as well. But then, why carries that coin the name Had(d)a and not that of Weladu?

Argument against the alternative scenarios as just described, is that in general the solidius fits within the early-medieval tradition of copying former solidi of the Roman Period. Secondly, the image actually doesn't feature any obvious 'smithy' elements, and this would have been the logic thing to do if you want to impress the public with depicting the legend. Why hassle with snakes and other circumstantial stuff, if one could take an anvil or wings instead, which would have been clear symbols to everyone? Like on the Franks Casket. Remains, it's a traditional, though a bit sloppy, imitation of a Roman emperor. Sloppy, especially if you compare this solidus with the one found in the UK with the Frisian name of Skanomodu, also in runic writing.

Our conclusion? We opt for the most obvious option. It was Weladu the Smith, of course. A choice without any bias. It was Weladu, a talented Frisian blacksmith, who produced the coin. He put his name on it in the Frisian language, in runic writing, and later became a legend. Plus, it's a coin found on Frisian territory as well.


Tradition of Klaasohm - Then there's folklore called Klaasohm (‘ohm’ meaning uncle: (Ni-)Cholas-uncle) at the Wadden Sea island Borkum in Ostfriesland (see image below). The celebration of Klaasohm has several striking parallels (in bold below) with the legend of Wayland the Smith.

Klaasohm Borkum East Frisia Ostfriesland
feast of Klaasohm at island Borkum

Each year on December 6th, men dress up as Klaasohms. It means they are dressed in sheep skins and feathers and wings of birds. After they have scared the island and hunted for women, they even try to fly away. That is done by jumping from an elevation onto the crowd below. Schweindorf and Borkum are both in former Frisia and less than fifty kilometers apart, as the crow flies. Are the ‘Klaasohms’ therefore, in fact, representations of Weladu?

And we are still baffled by the fact that part of the famous sixth-century voyage of the Irish monk Saint Brendan, who crossed oceans and seas, passed an island of blacksmiths who, by the way, threw slag at Saint Brendan’s boat.

Note also that the celebration takes place on the feast-day of Saint Nicolas. He's the Catholic patron saint of a.o. sailors and merchants. Traditionally, the sailing season of Frisians ran from the Feast of the Chair of Saint Peter on February 22nd to the feast-day of Saint Nicholas on December 6th. Saint Nicholas is patron of a.o. shipwrights and fishermen.


Let's take a quick look at the extravagant disc-on-bow fibula found in the terp (i.e. an artificial settlement mound) of Wijnaldum in the Netherlands. It's dated ca. 625. So, there's a small time slot. A very small window, since some scholars and a museum date the Schweindorf solidus (late) sixth century. Besides a (tight) time slot, Wijnaldum lies in former Frisia, present-day province Friesland, and is located 140 kilometers west of Schweindorf, as the crow flies. Not too far remote from each other, and both Schweindorf and Wijnaldum were part of Frisia at that time.

And, if you think we're pushing the envelope, everything starts with ‘but what if?’

Wayland the Smith
Weladu fabricating his wings

3. Blacksmiths and the Devil

Blacksmiths started to fulfil a crucial role in societies once metallization started, meaning the moment metal became an important commodity in society. The Stone Age ended in Europe around 2300 BC. From then on started the Bronze Age which lasted until about 500 BC. Then the Iron Age took over. It's from the Bronze Age that the agency of the smith became crucial. His skills to produce (durable) commodities for daily use, items for value exchange, weapons, and items for rituals and religious purposes. Also, the blacksmith was able to convert commodities and items belonging to one of these categories to one of the other categories, and back again. All by re-melting and re-forging the object. Indeed, the specific quality of metal above stone or wood. This agency gave the blacksmith a mythical, almost supernatural position, and resulted in all kind of legends like we discussed in this post.

In province Groningen in the Netherlands, people use the expression “dat mag smid waitn” (‘that is for the smith to know’) which is a variation of the Dutch expression “dat mag Joost weten” (‘that is for Joost to know’) where the name Joost represents the Devil. Thus, the blacksmith and the Devil are exchangeable. In Mid-Frisian language exists the expression “it geheim fan de smid” (‘the secret of the smith’).

In northern Germany the fairy-tale Der Schmied und der Teufel exists, about blacksmith Ochsenberg who makes a deal with the Devil for more money. In province Friesland a myth, in many variations, exists about a heathen blacksmith whose ghost haunts the many waters surrounding the village of Eernewoude. It goes as follows:


The Blacksmith of Eernewoude - Wybo was a blacksmith in the village of Eernewoude. He was a tall man, and one the last descendants of the heathen king of Frisia, King Radbod. A king also known as the Enemy of God. The mother of Wybo was heathen still. Wybo was a rough and insolent man. For one thing, he robbed widows and orphans. People whispered the blacksmith had made a pact with the Devil. The mother of Wybo was filled with hatred toward anything that had to do with Christianity.

Not far from Eernewoude lay the town of Wartna, also Warten. A town founded by King Radbod. Radbod had warned that if a fratricide would occur, the town of Wartna would go down. Since Radbod, the town had become prosperous and also Christian, including a monastery at the river Smalle Ee. A monk called Bouwe was head of that monastery. Bouwe was a foundling, and the monastery had taken care of him.

The mother of Wybo hatched a wicked plan to get rid of Bouwe by her son. Thinking, that would turn things for the better. Wybo killed Bouwe, when Bouwe was on his way late in the evening. But when Wybo’s mother saw Bouwe’s body up close, she made a terrible discovery, namely that monk Bouwe was her lost son. She could see it because of the sign of Radbod on his chest. Fratricide was a fact.

Not soon after a terrible flood hit province Friesland with towering waves, as high as houses. Thousands of people died and the town of Wartna was wiped away. Blacksmith Wybo and his mother drowned too. The prophecy of King Radbod became reality.

The soul of Wybo never found peace. For centuries now, his ghost is loose and roams the region of Eernewoude. People call him the Langesleattemer Man ‘Man of Langesleat’. Sometimes skippers saw the dead blacksmith, walking over the water with his face down to the ground, like he was in terrible agony. Many stories exist that people not live to tell an encounter with the dead smith of Eernewoude.


Then there's this story of a disturbed man, an article posted in the weekly Jeversches Wochenblatt, edition of August 6, 1912. A story that feels like history repeating, only the ingredients ‘Schweindorf’, ‘blacksmith’, ‘Devil’ and ‘woman’ have been mixed up.


The Devil is coming, the Devil is coming from Esens!

Schweindorf - The drunk, sixty-year-old unmarried worker M., recently went out into the street at night, wearing only his shirt. A night watchman took him back to his home. Here M. smashed everything up, and then crawled into the chimney where he got stuck.

After being freed in response to his cries for help, he went to the village of Schweindorf around three in the morning, wearing only a torn black shirt. The residents of Landstraße Str. and those who met him were frightened at the sight of him. A maid who returned from milking, dropped her buckets and ran home with the cry:

De Düwel kummt, de Düwel kummt!

In Schweindorf, M. found shelter with a blacksmith who also provided him with clothes until he was brought back to Esens by car by gendarme K. The unfortunate man was temporarily placed in the orphanage.

Jeversches Wochenblatt (1912), courtesy Klaus Bostelmann

4. Saint Eligius

We cannot end this post without mentioning the patron of blacksmiths and goldsmiths, namely Saint Eligius. He was a contemporary of Weladu and lived from 588 to 600. Eligius was a blacksmith and apprentice of Abbo, a goldsmith and mint master in the town of Limoges. During his career, Eligius came to work with the hammer at the court of Chlothar II, king of Neustria. This, after he had forged a golden throne inlaid with jewels. Later, he made career and became one of the king’s advisors. The antithesis of Weladu, who killed the king instead of giving him advice.


Note 1 - Schweindorf or Schwerinsdorf? Literature and research all speak of Schweindorf in region Ostfriesland, near the town of Westerholt. Not to be confused with neighbourhood Schweindorf in the city of Neresheim in Germany either. However, when you visit the Ostfriesisches Landesmuseum Emden where the coin is at display, the explanatory text in the cabinet says it was found in Schwerinsdorf. Schwerinsdorf too is located in region Ostfriesland, but more to the south. So, who is wrong? For the time being we adhere to the books and stick with Schweindorf near Westerholt.

Note 2 - Wayland and music. Composer, and unfortunately also with anti-Semitic sympathies, Richard Wagner drafted in 1849-1850 the opera libretto Wieland der Schmied, but nobody was interested to produce it. Eventually, it was Jan Levoslav Bella who made an opera out of it and produced it in Bratislava, former Czechoslovakia in 1926. The same anti-Semite sentiments existed around the audience of the Swedish rock band Völund Smed in the '90s. Dutch singer Willem Bijkerk chose Waylon as his stage name. Whether he was inspired by Wagner or by the Frisian legend Weladu, should not be a question. It was the country singer and songwriter Waylon Jennings who inspired him. Nevertheless, we encourage Willem to change his stage name into Weladu. Lastly, a music band in Michigan, USA named Wayland exists.

Note 3 - At Ashbury in the UK the megalith long-barrow is nicknamed Wayland’s Smithy, since the tenth century already. The stone structure itself is dated 3600 BC. Popular belief is that when you leave your horse behind with some money coins at 'the smithy' for a while, the horse will be shod when you return. To this day, people perform pagan rituals, stick coins everywhere. Also, for Druidry this megalithic mound is an important object.

Note 4 - Since in this post the feast of Klaasohm has been dealt with, and this is a hiking site, we should mention the St Nicholas Ways in Turkey. Saint Nicholas is the protector of, among others, sailors, and his feast day on 6 December traditionally marked the end of the sailing season for Frisian skippers. Saint Nicholas was a Greek from the town of Myra, modern Demre on the coast of Lycia, living in the fourth century AD. The St Nicholas Ways are six ancient routes in the foothills of the Alacadağ mountain. These are old sixth-century roads (Clow 2022).

Besides the feast of Klaasohm on the island of Borkum, there is also the feast of Sinterklaas in the Netherlands on 5 December. Furthermore, like on Borkum, many other Wadden Sea islands have their own version of the feast too. Island Texel has Ouwe Sunderklaas, island Terschelling has Sunderum, island Vlieland has Opkleden, island Ameland has Sunneklaas (De Jong 2023), and island Schiermonnikoog has Klozum. All variants on the theme that otherworld creatures take over control of the island and where especially women or children should be afraid. All take place around December 6. Lastly, one of the theories behind the origin of Santa Claus is that the Dutch introduced the feast of Sinterklaas in their colony New Netherland in the seventeenth century, and from there, it spread into the world.

Suggested music

Kravits, L., Fly Away (1998)

Aerosmith, Rag Dol (1987)

Further reading

Alexander, M. (ed.), Beowuld. A Verse Translation (1973)

Atlantic Religion, Wayland Revisited: A Pan-European God? (2015)

Bauer, A. & Pesch, A. (eds.), Hvanndalir - Beiträge zur europaischen Altertumskunde und mediävistischen Literaturwissenschaft; Düwel, K., Merkwürdiges zu Goldbraktaeten und anderen Inschriftenträgern (2018)

Beers, J., Runes in Frisia. On the Frisian origin of runic finds (2012)

Berghaus, P. & Schneider, K., Anglo-friesische Runensolidi im Licht des Neufundes von Schweindorf (Ostfriesland) (1967)

BNN Vara 3 op Reis, Sinterklaas (ofwel Sunneklaas) op de Waddeneilanden is niet voor watjes (2019)

Clow, K., Lycian Way (2022)

Delanty, G. & Matto, M. (eds.), The Word Exchange. Anglo-Saxon poems in translation (2011)

Düwel, K. & Nedoma, R., Runenkunde (2023)

Fontijn, D., Economies of Destruction. How the systematic destruction of valuables created value in Bronze Age Europe c. 2300-500 BC (2020)

Hart, ‘t M., Davids, K., Fatah-Black, K., Heerma van Vos, L., Lucassen, L. & Touwen, J., Wereldgeschiedenis van Nederland (2018)

Heeren, S. & Feijst, van der L., Fibulae uit de Lage Landen. Brooches from the Low Countries. Prehistorische, Romeinse en Middeleeuwse Fibulae uit de Lage Landen. Beschrijvingen, analyse en interpretative van een archeologische vondstcategorie (2017)

Hines, J., The Anglo-Frisian Question (2017)

Iba, E.M. (ed.), Hake Betken sien Duven. Das grosse Sagenbuch aus dem Land an Elb- und Wesermündung (1993)

Jong, de M., Sunneklaas út de âlde doaze (2023)

Kegler, J.F. (ed.), Land der Entdeckungen. Die Archaologie des friesischen Kustenraums. Land van ontdekkingen. De archeologie van het Friese kustgebied (2013)

Kramer, E., De Hada-runensolidus opnieuw bekeken: eremetaal voor moed, godsvrucht en smeedkunst? (2016)

Looijenga, T., Die goldenen Runensolidi aus Harlingen und Schweindorf (2004)

Looijenga, T., Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts (1997)

Looijenga, T., Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions (2003)

Nedoma, R., The legend of Wayland in Deor (1990)

Mitchell, S (ed.)., Beowulf (2017)

Otten, M., Edda. De liederen uit de Codex Regius en verwante manuscripten (1994)

Pesch, A. & Blankenfeldt, R. (eds.), Goldsmith Mysteries. Archaeological, pictorial and documentary evidence from the 1st millennium AD in northern Europe; Oehrl, S., Bildliche Darstellungen vom Schmied Wieland und ein unerwarterer Aftritt in Walhall (2011)

Page, R.I., Runes and runic inscriptions. Collected essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking runes (1995); The runic solidus of Schweindorf, Ostfriesland, and related runic solidi (1968)

Stratford, B., Anglo-Saxon Myths. The Struggle for the Seven Kingdoms (2022)

Thompson, A., Wayland the Smith (2011)

Viking Archaeology, ‘Wayland the Smith’ Anglo-Scandinavian Crosses (website)

Wiersma, J.P., Friese mythen en sagen (1973)

Wright, W.W., Crafters of kingship: smiths, elite power, and gender in early medieval Europe (2019)

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