Dissolute Elisabeth and her Devil
In the Middle Age lived a once promiscuous girl named Elisabeth. She had come to repentance, found honorable employ as a maid, and had established herself at the hamlet of Vrieswijc, modern Friezenwijk. Hamlet Friezenwijk is situated nearby the scenic village of Heukelum in the region Batavia (viz. region Betuwe) in province Gelderland, the Netherlands.
Because of Elisabeth’s former dissolute and honorless lifestyle, the Devil still preyed on her body and soul. This was after all how medieval people thought of women in general. Women, namely, could easily be swayed, as was evident after Eve had eaten an apple, the forbidden fruit, at the behest of the Devil. Especially, dishonorable, unmarried girls were susceptible. Read our post Harbours, Hookers, Heroines, and Women in Masquerade to understand more of the concept of honor and the position of women in the late medieval (and early modern) period.
In the year 1282, Elisabeth went for a walk on what must have been a very hot summer’s day (Van Engelen 1995). Probably somewhere along the River Linge near Friezenwijk. When she got thirsty, she drank from a pond filled with clear water. Inexcusable, she forgot to make the sign of the Cross before she started to drink, and did not notice that the Devil poisoned the water by throwing a small clot of earth into the pond. That Elisabeth failed to cross herself, probably was because she still lacked discipline of her former rowdy life and had not mastered all the rules of piousness yet.
At the house in her room, she became possessed by evil. It was so bad, she had to be tied down to her bed. A scene we are all familiar with since the movie The Exorcist (1973). Only this time her name was Elisabeth instead of Regan. Anyway, the lady of the house where Elisabeth worked as a maid cared and brought Elisabeth during lent to the priest in Heukelum to confess her sins. For a while this helped. The Devil inside was pacified. Until Easter, when she was about to take communion. Elisabeth’s mouth turned into stone, and she could not swallow the holy host. A white dove came flying in and took the host out of her mouth. Back in her room, she became possessed again and total madness came over her.
After three days of suffering, Virgin Mary decided it was enough and time to help Elisabeth out. Virgin Mary, together with John the Evangelist and Saint Elizabeth, announced to Elisabeth they would visit her in Friezenwijk. Elisabeth tried to find the most beautiful white cloth to be put over her bed in order to respectfully welcome her esteemed guests. But in vain, because she had too little time. Instead, Elisabeth put a modest bedspread made of hemp over her bed. The holy trinity came, sat down on Elisabeth's bed, and cured her. After Elisabeth had cleansed her mouth with purified, blessed water, the same dove from before at Easter came flying in again and put the host into her mouth. Finally, Elisabeth was able to swallow it.
One last time Elisabeth's devil made an effort to get hold on her body and soul, but it was not able to get inside anymore. It left the room, and out of frustration the Devil set fire to the mattress made of straw. Elisabeth extinguished the flames with both her arms, which got burned heavily. When Elisabeth wrapped her arms with the hemp bedspread the three saints had sat on, the skin of her arms healed immediately.
The above account is basically a free translation of documentation collected by the Meertens Institute. The story of this miracle can be traced back in texts dating back to around the year 1480. Different accounts speak of the yearly procession held on Pentecost Monday carrying the statue of Virgin Mary. Departing from the parish church in Heukelum to the chapel in hamlet Friezenwijk. The chapel was built on the spot where the exorcism had happened. The hemp bedspread was kept as relic in the church of Heukelum, but has been lost. Probably after the Reformation.
One can think of many explanations for this story. A likely one, we think, is that it was about a young girl with a rebellious character who was pressured by her environment to accept the social, conservative conventions. Maybe she resisted to conform, it got her off balance, and caused distress and even mental sickness. Or, who knows, she was mentally unstable in the first place, which made her behave socially unacceptable, and out of ignorance was pressured into obedience and ‘healed’. Either way, Elisabeth had to fight her personal demons. We cannot help to think that a free female spirit was victim of her time.
The procession was very popular. People from all over the country attended. Even after the Protestant Reformation and the Beeldenstorm ‘image/statue storm’ in the year 1566, devotees continued to organize the procession. Halfway the seventeenth century, the procession was popular still. A century later, however, the tradition had fallen into disuse at last. Not much later, the chapel must have been dismantled, likewise the procession pathway. Where exactly the chapel stood, is unclear. It might that it stood in the area that has been fully excavated by the local brick factory. So, we will never know.
The name Friezenwijk
How hamlet Friezenwijk received its name is a bit of a mystery. Originally, local people used to call the hamlet Agter Vrieswijc, or later Achter Friezenwijk meaning ‘behind Friezenwijk’. The best and simplest explanation is that the name Friezenwijk means ‘settlement or farmstead of Frisians’ (Van Erkel & Samplonius 2018). Some speculate that after the retreat of the Romans, Frisians settled here. Others say, however, there was a little waterway called the Vree, Vrede or Vreze, and that this explains the part Fries or Vries. Etymological wise, the jugglery with d and z might be complicated. Yet others say Fries or Vries stems from the Dutch word fris meaning ‘fresh/windy’, and therefore ‘windy area’. Or it could mean ‘swampy area’, but no sound etymological explanation is given for these suggestions (Van Honk 2020). Perhaps here is meant the occupation of a friesen known in Germany and Switzerland; land workers who irrigated fields. See From Patriot to Insurgent: John Fries and the tax rebellions.
Not far from the hamlet Friezenwijk, you can find the town of Vreeswijk ‘Frisian wic’, and also the neighborhood Friezenbuurt ‘Frisian neighborhood’ in the town of Maarssen. Check our post The Batwing Doors of Northwest Europe for a bit more information on these place names.
Okay, we drop one more Frisian wic, namely Freswick (Chamson 2014). Not so close, and located in the upper northeast of Scotland. Although, the current town Fresvik in Norway possibly meaning ‘Freyr’s bay’ might also be an explanation. Or was it a settlement of Frisians on the Norwegian coast?
Note – When hiking the Frisia Coast Trail, you will pass through Friezenwijk and Heukelum. Do you dare to walk through the scrub of the river floodplains west of Friezenwijk by night, where the Devil must have roamed?
INXS, The Devil Inside (1987)
Sandra, Maria Magdalena (1985)
Chamson, E.R., Revisiting a millennium of migrations. Contextualizing Dutch/Low-German influence on English dialect lexis (2014)
Engelen, van A.F.V. (ed), Jan Buisman. Duizend jaar weer, wind en water in de Lage Landen. Deel 1. Historisch onderzoek 764 tot 1300 (1995)
Erkel, van G. & Samplonius, K., Nederlandse plaatsnamen verklaard. Reeks Nederlandse plaatsnamen deel 12 (2018)
Herwaarden, van J., Heukelum, O.L. Vrouw van Heukelum (the Meertens Institute website)
Honk, van M., Het grote wonder van Vrieswijc (2020)