It all began with piracy
Updated: Jul 29
The arrival of the Romans in northwest Europe at the beginning of the era, with the Rhine as frontier, was the starting signal for five centuries of widespread piracy. Piracy that not only affected the coasts of Britannia and Gaul. It stirred things up even as far as the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The heartland of these pirates was the coastal area north of the Rhine in the Netherlands up to the Elbe in Germany including parts of the adjacent interior. A dangerous coast that even sheltered notorious capers until the late fourteenth century. And, out of this long-standing pirating tradition evolved a common culture with a common language, comprising the southern coast of the North Sea ánd both sides of the English Channel. In fact, it is upon this buccaneer-culture the West was partly founded and that started to flourish over the course of the fifth century, after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the region. In this post we try to tell this complex story of the Late Antiquity. A story that is almost forgotten.
After reading this post you understand too why in the psyche of the West names of freebooters and mateys like Black Beard, Pisselingh, Jack Sparrow, Diederik van Sonoy, John Crabbe, Magister Wigbold, Rock Brasiliano, Captain Hook, Klaus Störtebeker, Michiel de Ruyter, Zwarte Rolf, Francis Drake, the Flying Dutchman, Captain Kidd, Greate Pier, Godeke Michels, William II de La Marck, Black Bart, Davy Jones, Piet Hein, Lancelot Blackburne, Lorencillo, Long John Silver, Claes Compaen and many, many more, have a special place.
Before we begin; why is this story almost never being told? The explanation is trivial and quite embarrassing for the academic world: their obsession with Vikings. This disproportional emphasis on Vikings has distorted our view on Europe’s maritime history. As a particular scholar describes it: “The Vikings, in fact, were only the last episode of a long line of barbarian pirates harassing Europe” and "The Viking age marks an accentuation of something long present". Admittedly, the Vikings did so with a big bang. Since till this very day almost twenty-four-seven a new, academic book or article about Vikings is being published. And social media seems to mainly amplify what is in the spotlights already. So, let's quickly go to where and when it all really started.
1 - Arrival of the Romans
Led by none other than Julius Ceasar himself, the Romans conquered Gaul between 58-51 BC. It was around 15 BC the Romans first set foot on the marshy soil of the biggest delta of Europe, that of the rivers Rhine, Scheldt and Meuse. The wetlands. There where the ocean meets the sand, so to speak. If the Romans had made a proper business case beforehand, they probably would have saved themselves the trouble. After a few decennia of cumbersome and repeatedly disastrous military expeditions north of the Rhine, including a major defeat with 1,300 casualties on Roman side in the Baduhenna Woods against the Frisians in AD 28, the Romans settled with the lower river Rhine as the northernmost frontier of the empire on the continent. Around AD 40 they started to erect the Lower Germanic Limes 'border'. Barely were the first fortifications completed, when in AD 69 a large-scale revolt started, orchestrated by the Batavians. The Canninefates, the Chauci and the Frisians also chipped in. The naval power of these allied forces was mainly supplied by the Canninefates and the Frisians (Haywood, 1999). Their fleet laid waste to the fort of Agrippinae, at current Valkenburg, and captured a staggering twenty-four Roman galleys, what must have been a serious blow to the Roman classis ‘fleet’. At the North Sea, the fleet of the insurgents confronted a Roman convoy sailing from Britannia. Maybe it were reinforcements because things were not exactly moving into the right direction for the Romans at the limes during the uprise. The Batavians and Chauci ruined many other forts more inland. Eventually, the Romans restored order in the central river area of the Netherlands.
Under the rule of Emperor Hadrianus the limes were heavily fortified in the second century. However, at the end of the second century things turned bad again at the limes. Germanic tribes revolted again and invaded Roman territory. At the same time, in the second century, a massive process of rewetting of the delta landscape commenced. A process known as the Great Watering (see further below). Forts literally started to sink slowly into increasingly wetter grounds. Most forts in the west were abandoned during the already vertigo years of the third century. Although the Romans restored order, for a last time, at the end of the third century, they soon after retreated south. The Roman road that connected Cologne via Maastricht and Tongeren with Bavia on towards Boulogne-sur-Mer, also called the Limes Belgicus, became the new northernmost border of the proud empire. A border still traceable because it is more or less the dividing line between the French and the Dutch languages.
2 - Endemic piracy
The drivers behind the large-scale piracy ('pirate' is derived from the Greek word peiratēs, meaning something like ‘to attack’) from the region north of the Rhine along the southern coast of the North Sea were the following.
The new wealth the Romans brought to the region, might have been a logical, first, reason. Indeed, greed. Maybe a trigger already soon after the Romans had arrived in the wet delta. Secondly, climate change probably was a driver too. This is especially the case because a new period of marine transgression, the Dunkirk II period, started in the third century. The sea level rose and worsened living conditions along the low-lying coast. But also, the already mentioned Great Watering: a defrosting process of the still frozen deep soil since the last Ice Age, due to the temperature rise, causing the soil to shrink (ice has lesser volume than water). Both processes gradually made much of the coastal land unsuitable for agriculture. The need to find additional resources became paramount. The already existing tradition of piracy gained further momentum.
Hear the Seagulls Cry
Eventually, the population of the west coast of the Netherlands and of tidal marshlands in the north of Germany and of the Netherlands decreased. Especially in the fourth century and the start of the fifth century, populations were small. This must have coincided with regional migration movements. The coastal zones were almost empty. Or, as some scholars put it: "you only could hear the seagulls cry". Check out our blog post Rats with wings or Masters of the Sky to understand these birds better.
Thirdly, perhaps stimulated by the Roman presence, ship building and fighting techniques developed too. This enhanced the possibilities of piracy. Lastly, the fourth reason causing piracy to go to the next level in volume and complexity, is that these Germanic tribes of the sub-Roman world started to operate in (large) confederations. The names Franks and Saxons are, in fact, primarily names to denote a confederation of tribes. We will come back to it further down.
The result was that piracy became an important means of livelihood for many tribes of the region north of the river Rhine.
The most well-known Germanic seafaring tribes of the first two centuries of the era are the Batavi, the Bructeri, the Canninefates, the Chauci, the Frisians and the Usipi. Except for the Batavians and the Canninefates, who lived respectively in the central river land and between the mouths of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, the other tribes lived outside (mostly north of) the limes. From here, outside Roman control, they could prepare their raids deep into Roman territory south of the Rhine, at both coasts of the English Channel and at the coast of Brittany. The coasts of their homeland were treacherous, thus offering protecting against Roman punitive expeditions. A coast that was (and is) shallow with strong tides and infested with gullies, inlets, islands, bays, sandbanks, total lack of points of reference and, of course, bad weather. Many Roman fleets were defeated by these (lack of) elements. Also, approaching these coasts from the interior was extremely difficult, with all the peatlands, swamps, forests, lakes and rivers.
Of the Germanic tribes, the Chauci were the most notorious pirates. We know that the Chauci and the Frisians were not only neighbouring tribes but also that they shared the same saltmarsh-culture of living on raised settlement mounds (i.e. a terp or Warft) above the likely flood line. A coastal zone stretching from current province Friesland in the Netherlands to the Ems in Germany. The Chauci may also have settled on islands in the estuary of the Rhine. Check out our blog post The shipwrecked people of the salt marshes to know how the Romans appreciated these tribes and their salt-marsh culture, and click this link to understand fully what these terpen or Warften were (including our manual how to make a terp yourself!).
Thanks to the Roman historian and politician Tacitus (ca. AD 56 - ca.120) we know that the Germanic tribes were skilful seafarers. It concerned notes of a naval battle near the river mouth of the Ems in 12 BC. A battle between the Romans and the Bructeri tribe. The Bructeri was a tribe living more upstream the Ems. Another account, also of Tacitus, is about the phenomenal journey of the Usipi tribe. The Usipi lived more inland between Cologne at the Rhine and the Lippe. During a military campaign in Britannia in AD 82, a cohort of Ursipi mercenaries mutinied from the Imperial Army. First, they commandeered three galleys. With these ships, which were not easy things to master, they sailed north and circumnavigated Britannia. Then the Ursipi mercenaries crossed the North Sea and sailed upstream the Rhine trying to make it home, apparently. Only, on the river they had trouble navigating. Here the Frisians, who gave no quarter, either killed or enslaved the Ursipi (Abulafia, 2019).
It was common practice for Germanic warriors of free tribes, i.e. outside the Roman Empire, to join the ranks of the Roman army as mercenary, as the example of Ursipi warriors illustrated. Auxiliary troops of Frisians too, operated in Britannia, especially at Hadrian's Wall in the second century. Read also our aforementioned blog post Frisian mercenaries in the Roman Army. It also shows that besides illicit piracy, signing up for the military was another possibility for free Germanic tribes to get a slice of the (Roman) cake.
The Chauci entered history with raids against the province Gallia Belgica in the first half the first century. The first record of a raid of the Chauci is in AD 41. Six years later again the Chauci appear in the annals. This time we even have the name of their commander: Gannascus. Gannascus, who himself was a member of the Canninefates tribe, was captured by the Romans in AD 47. We can assume Gannascus was send by the Romans to Davy Jones' Locker. The last time we hear of the Chauci is during the period AD 170-175, when raids were at their height. The Chauci were even carrying out operations in the Bay of Biscay. Simply because the Chauci were not mentioned anymore, does not mean they had given up raiding and had become good and law-abiding people. The Romans merely had given a new name to the sea gypsies, namely Saxons and Franks, of which the Chauci, like other northern seafaring tribes, surely were part too.
3 - Litus Saxonicum
By around AD 200 the intensity of piracy was so widespread that the shores of northern Gaul from Brittany to Flanders, and of southern and eastern Britannia were not safe to live anymore. The forebear of the adventus Saxonum ‘the coming of the Saxons’, i.e. the migration of the so-called Anglo-Saxons to come within a few centuries. At the end of the first century the Romans started to build fortifications at river mouths. These were the precursor of the Litus Saxonicum 'Saxon Shore frontier'. Probably also fortifications existed at the river mouths of the Scheldt and the Rhine in the Netherlands. Due to marine erosion these have been destroyed.
From ca. AD 250 pirate activity increased yet again. The Frankish confederation started to roam the sea shores for booty around AD 230. This big confederation consisted of the Amsivari, Bructeri, Chamavi, Chattuari (i.e. the Hetware of the epic poem Beowulf), Salians (Salian Franks), Tubantes, Twihantes and the Usipi tribes. Possibly also the the Canninefates, Chauci, Frisians and the Heruls. Franks was the name they gave themselves, meaning possibly something like ‘fierce’ or ‘bold’ or maybe ‘free’. The name Saxons or Saxones appeared for the first time in history around AD 150, i.e. in Ptolemy’s Geographica. Probably Saxon is the name of a confederation of the Reudingi and the Aviones tribes north of the river Elbe, Germany. However, where to pinpoint the Reudingi and the Aviones exactly is not clear. The Saxons started to raid a bit later than the Franks, around AD 280. More theories exist about the term saxons. If interested in these, check our blog post Have a Frisians cocktail.
In the period AD 253-276 the Franks even looted in the heart of the antique world. In AD 260 Frankish corsairs (although the name corsairs is mainly associated with the barbary corsairs of northern Africa from the sixteenth century onwards) sacked the cities of Tarragona and Tours, and the coast of North Africa. In AD 278 they suffered a defeat in the Mediterranean and were captured. For some reason, the Romans resettled them in Pontus at the Black Sea. A year later, the cunning pirates commandeered a fleet of the Romans and sailed from the Black Sea via the Bosporus into the Aegean Sea. They pillaged the coasts of Asia Minor (the Levant) and of Greece. From Greece they steered the fleet to the island Sicily and sacked the city of Syracuse. From there, slightly over-confident, they even tried to raid the great city of Carthage in current Tunisia. Here, for the first time, they suffered a defeat. Nevertheless, they were able to continue their sea journey via the Strait of Gibraltar back to the Rhine. The whole endeavour must have taken about half a year at least.
The Romans responded to the increasing pirate activity to further secure the coasts with fortifications and with more stand-by naval power. This is the legendary Litus Saxonicum ‘Saxon Shore frontier’ as described in the Notitia Dignitatum ‘List of Offices’ dated at the beginning of the fifth century. It is a series of forts and military fleets deployed along the southern and eastern shores of Britannia, and along the northern coast of Gaul. The Litus was organized between AD 240 and 280. Check this map we made of coastal defences to have an overview of these fortifications.
There is some dispute among historians how to precisely appreciate the Litus Saxonicum. Was it really an integrated defence wall, or more a series of separated structures? More probably it was the latter. Primarily to protect strategic points located along the coasts, mostly regional trading hubs often at river mouths. With a local military, stone structure, commodities could be protected and the transport of troops and goods over sea be secured. In other words, bridgeheads for safe landings of ships. Think of the shipment of ore, grains, coal, livestock and military supply. At the same time, these forts also facilitated the clearance and taxation of goods by the Roman administration, since these were regional commercial hubs too.
Be all that as it may, the period the Litus Saxonicum was set up, coincides when piracy was a scourge in the wider region. Villas burned down all the way in Brittany, forts destroyed in Britannia, the reduction in the number of vici ‘trading settlements’ and the hoards found along the coasts of Brittany and Britannia that might indicate insecure times too (Abulafia, 2019). So, no mistake as to why the Romans went through all the trouble and expenses. In AD 285 Roman commander Carausius was tasked to end the Saxon piracy for once and for all, and to keep the seaways clear. He was successful, but immediately accused by Rome of being in league with the pirates. Also, punitive expeditions of the Roman Army into the Rhine area were part of the strategy to suppress piracy (Pearson, 2005).
Bribe and Prejudice
We cannot exclude Rome was right and Carausius could not withstand the pressure of the pirates and/or the appeal of ther profits. In our blog post Sailors escaped from Cyclops we saw before how clergy were in league with pirates too, operating from the coast near Bremen in Frisia in the eleventh century. The former territory of the Chauci, by the way.
The ‘success’ of the Litus Saxonicum and the actions of Carausius were not long-lasting. In AD 280 the Frankish and Saxon confederations even started to combine their forces. The pirates were also simply called Germanic tribes by the Romans. Together, the confederations plundered the coasts of Belgica and Amorica, i.e. the coasts of Brittany and Normandy. Another raid is documented seven years later, namely that of the Herul tribe from Scandinavia who plundered the Rhine area. The origins of the Herul are a bit hazy, but possibly somewhere in Denmark or southern Sweden. In this period, described as praedatores, Frisian pirates were also active (Haywood, 1999).
The first decennia of the fourth century the Frankish pirates started raiding the coast of Spain and as far north as the Orkney Islands. Halfway the fourth century Frankish incursions into the Roman territory at Rhine area took place. A Roman fleet of six-hundred ships had to restore Roman hegemony, albeit briefly, in the Rhine area again. Not long after, however, things went totally wrong for the Romans. The Germanic en Celtic tribes teamed up to give the Romans the real boot.
4 - Barbarica conspiratio; pull-out of the Romans
As described, the Romans had retreated from their limes along the lower Rhine over the course of the third century, although they still tried to maintain their influence over the lucrative central river area. This influence was achieved also with money, with buying alliances. The gold hoard of Lienden, dated around AD 465 and found in the central river land in the Netherlands, just east of the town of Wijk bij Duurstede, might be an example these politics. A strategy identical with how CIA agents went with suitcases filled with money into the mountains of Afghanistan to buy alliances of local warlords and their tribes, during the '80s of the last century. Halfway the fourth century, the situation in Britannia started to be untenable, despite the Litus Saxonicum. In AD 367 not only raids of Frankish and Saxon pirates were launched onto the shores of Britannia, but also from the north the Celtic tribes the Attacotti, Picts and the Scots revolted and broke through the borders. It is the year the Romans called the barbarica conspiratio 'barbarian conspiracy'. Perhaps they were right and the pressure on Roman forces was coordinated among the barbarians of both sides of the North Sea, indeed.
"Enough is enough," the Romans must have thought, and in the year AD 410 Rome pulled out of Britannia as well. Leaving the defences to the Romano-Briton civitates 'citizens' themselves. Following the barbarica conspiratio, piracy remained endemic, roughly until early sixth century. There was one twist in story, however.
After the collapse of Roman power in Britain, Germanic tribes started to settle. Indeed, the adventus Saxonum ‘the coming of the Saxons’ had started, as described in Gildas’ De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae ‘On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain’ written around AD 540. The first evidence we have that Germanic tribes settled, is in the year AD 429. The Chronica Gallica ‘Gallic Chronicle’ of AD 542 testifies of Saxons getting a foot in the door at the Isles and gained control over a significant part of England. Germanic tribes making their way into Britain. Most of them were from northern Germany, Frisia and southern Scandinavia (Fleming, 2010). Settlers in search of (dry) land. Maybe in small boats too. With wife, children and some livestock. But also, foreign tribes with the purpose of politcial conquest and about to make live of the native walhaz 'the Celts' quite difficult. The Anglo-Saxon history had commenced.
The West Germanic term walhaz means 'foreigner' or more specifically 'a person of Celtic or Romance speech'. In other words, walhaz is the perspective of a Germanic-speaking neighbour of the Roman Empire, living in what is now Flanders, Germany and the Netherlands (Schrijver, 2014). On the continent the term walhaz suvived as 'wahl' in German (e.g. Walchensee) and 'waal' in Dutch (e.g. Waalwijk and Walonia) to denote people who spoke Romance. A walnut is therefore a nut from France, where the people speak Romance. In Old English walhaz developed into 'wealh' or 'wealhas' and retained the inherited meaning of 'foreigner' to indicate the indigenous people of Britain, being of lower status. In the West Saxon dialect of Old English 'wealh' was even a synonym of slave.
The raid around AD 525 of Danu rex Chlochilaichus, probably king Hygelac of the epic poem Beowulf, into Frisia at the river Rhine, was the last pirate activity recorded in written sources. Read also our blog post Ornament of the Gods found in a mound of clay about this disastrous expedition. It is the end of centuries of the so-called Saxon migration and piracy, where, in fact, Saxons included Jutes, Angles, Frisians and even Franks (Lebecq, 2005).
5 - Ships and Modus Operandi
One of the most important things you need as a pirate is a sword and a ship. We put the sword, cutlass, seax and other weaponry stuff aside, and shall focus on ships first and then the modus operandi.
In the words of Tacitus, the pirates used a medley of ships, some propelled with oars, some with colourful cloaks used as sails. This might suggest the fleet was inferior, but it was not. In fact, the fleet was quite professional (Pearson, 2005). It is a misconception that the Germanic tribes did not use sail. The quote of Tacitus, in fact, makes already clear they did. Furthermore, from the neighbouring Celts we know they used sails for sure and of course there were contacts between the Celtic and Germanic tribes. The thing was, however, that the Germanic tribes made less use of sail at first. The explanation for this was: there simply was not much need for it. Warships were traditionally propelled by peddles and later by oars. Above, a warship had to be manoeuvrable and not depended on a favourable wind to attack or to pull out. And, since the crew of a warship had to be as big as possible anyway, a sail was not needed. For commercial transport, however, the opposite argument was the case. A small crew is more economical and thus the use of sails is reason. However, when piracy over longer distances became an increasing practice, the combination of ships propelled by oars ánd by wind came more in use.
In the centuries before the era until the first century AD, boats of the so-called Hjortspring-type were wide-spread in southern Scandinavia. These were boats of about seventeen meters long and had space for about twenty men peddling. These boats were built in the Nordic clinker-built tradition, thus where the edges of the hull planks overlap each other. By AD 100 the Hjortspring-type had been replaced by more sophisticated, also clinker-built, ships with oars. Much like the ships found in Halsnøy, Norway and in Björke, Sweden.
In the Rhine area, around the beginning of the era, flat-bottomed ships and barges were built with sails. Several barges have been found in the lower Old Rhine at Zwammerdam, the Netherlands. But also quite many in the river Waal (lower branch of the river Rhine), east of the town of Tiel at Kerk-Avezaath, and in the river Meuse near Kessel. These were used for commercial transport. The construction technique was flush or carvel-built. With this technigue the edges of the hull planks are placed close together.
In Bruges, Belgium a cargo ship was found, dated around AD 200. It was flat-bottomed, about fourteen meters long and carried sail. Like the Rhine barges mentioned above, it was carvel-built too. Similar to the Bruges boat is the ship excavated at Blackfriars (London), UK. It is dated the second century and had sail. Both the Bruges and Blackfriars boats are seen as the ancestral to the cog ship. The cog ship became the dominant ship type of the Early Middle Ages, and thought to be the typical vessel of the Frisians.
In Nydam Moss in Denmark three ships were found. The best conserved is the Nydam Oak ship. The findings illustrate that by AD 300 the Germanic tribes already possessed quite seaworthy boats and warships. The Nydam Oak ship is a twenty-one meters long Man-O-War and had space for thirty rowers annex warriors. Maybe it could carry a crew of in total of forty (probably) men. The ship was built in the Nordic tradition, namely clinker-built.
The Pesse Canoe
The oldest vessel in the world is from this piracy region, namely the dugout canoe of the village Pesse, province Drenthe in the Netherlands. Found in 1955 and dated between 8040 and 7510 BC. It is about 3 meters long, 45 centimeters wide, and with boards that are about 30 centimeters high. The wood is from a Scots pine. Check the Drents Museum.
Besides ships, we have seen from where the pirates operated, the current Wadden Sea coast of Germany and of the Netherlands, what are now the regions Friesland, Groningen, Ostfriesland, Butjadingen, Land Wursten and Dithmarschen. An area that was outside the sphere of influence of Rome and its waters were, as described earlier, treacherous and extremely hard to navigate. The only change to have success with a military operation in this ever-changing tidal landscape, was to engage locals in the army. Otherwise you were doomed to get stuck in the mud or get stranded on a tidal plate or sandbank. It was an impenetrable waterland. After the Roman Empire retreated south and abandoned the limes at the lower Rhine, Germanic tribes made use of this and the central river area, including the mouth of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt became excellent safe havens as well for pirate operations. These are the current regions Flanders, Zeeland and Holland.
In their wetlands, pirate operations were planned, prepared and carried out by the freebooters (a word, by the way, originating from the Dutch word vrijbuiter ‘free booty-er’). Possibly going out to sea for plundering during the sailing season from spring to autumn. The borders of the Roman Empire in the region were difficult to protect too because of the English Channel separating Gaul from Britannia. An excellent gateway cutting straight into Roman territory. With a Roman supply chain running via sea between the island and the continent being vulnerable and hard to protect. At first, the distances the sea robbers covered, were fairly limited and did not extend beyond the eastern and southern coast of Britannia and the northern coast of Gaul. But over the course of the third century, pirates operated in the Bay of Biscay and in the Mediterranean. It was impossible to carry out operation without having rests. So, probably during their nautical operations on the coast of Britain, the pirates rested in coves and inlets before attacking (Pearson, 2005).
A question, however, not much debated when talking about these early pirates is so obvious that it is often overlooked, namely: what was their booty? We easily assume their prize was gold, silver, armour, fancy bronze statue stuff etc. But was this available in large quantities making a raid economical? How much gold and silver was there to rob along the coastal settlements anyway? There was after all only a limited money economy. Randomly rowing into the Strait of Dover, steer your ships ashore at the first sight of a smoking fireplace, is unthinkable. What were they after and how did they know where to find it?
Another aspect is, that historical theories suggest piracy (also) increased due to climate change, causing much arable land along the low-lying coasts to be lost. In other words, raiding as a means of compensation and survival. Consequently, this must mean that with the looted treasure (or whatever the booty was), food and goods were purchased somewhere else in the region. But where and how? Where were still surpluses of food available and where were those markets? Or, were, for example, livestock and grain part of the booty too, and if yes, what were the implications for (the size of) their fleet, type of ships and their operations in general to transport this type of booty?
We welcome any suggestions on this matter of the booty and market outlets. Below Roman treasures found in the Netherlands, without suggesting, of course, these were robbed from Britannia.
Related to the former question is, how these pirates chose their tragets? We may assume the potential loot was protected by the Romans and Britons. We also know these pirates were capable of attacking and laying waste to fortresses and villages. If we take the Nydam Oak ship as reference, you had about forty warriors per ship. That barely seems enough to challenge a fortified village with military present. The ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle often speaks of parties of three ships forming a raiding party or making landfall. That would be hundred and twenty warriors tops. We would be interested in studies that have estimated the size of a village along the south or eastern coast of England, the number of legionaires deployed at the fortress and consequently how many pirates it would take to launge a succesful attack.
Anyhow, a fleet of ships, ship-building, careful targetting, up-to-date knowledge of the seaways and the 'Saxon Shore frontier' itself and thorough planning, were all absolute preconditions. Combining this with the fact that the homelands of these pirates consisted of only quite small settlements, the implementation of these operations must have covered an extensive area. Perhaps easily, or necessarily, beyond primary tribal entities. Many settlements must have been involved already for a single raiding operation. And, probably different raids took place each season simultaneously, otherwise these would not have been a real threat and continious headache for the Romans, as we have seen earlier in this post. It also must have taken months of careful preparations, possibly during wintertime.
6 - The new, buccaneer culture
The reader might compare all the different episodes and raids mentioned above to a pinball machine that releases ten balls at the same time. The summery, however, is that Germanic tribes living along the southern coast of the North Sea engaged step by step in full-fledged piracy, covering ever greater distances and forming growing coalitions or confederations. First these confederations were mainly known as Chauci, then as Franks and shortly after also as Saxons. Or, simply as Germanic pirates. Piracy had become an essential part of the survival strategy of these sea-tribe societies.
It is also that during this period the cult of the god Wodan developed. His cult developed relatively late, about the beginning of the era. Therefore, coinciding with increased raiding activity. Wodan is the god of warriors and his cult might reflect the changes in society, from mainly agricultural towards (also) a warrior culture.
The confederation of the Franks needs an additional commentary. Generally, we tend to think of them as a landlocked tribe, but their origin was, in fact, a marine one. The Romans considered them as a sea people, as well. The cradle of the Franks is at southern coast of the North Sea too. In early sources the Franks are called Hugas. The northern region in the Netherlands bordering the Wadden Sea in current region Humsterland in Groningen, was called Hugumarchi ‘land/mark of the Hugas’ in the Early Middle Ages. Although the Hugas left this region more inland and were replaced by the Frisians and Chauci, the name Humsterland has survived (Tuuk, 2016). Around the beginning of the era, the Salians, or Salian Franks, part of the Frankish confederation, started to move further south during the second half of the third century. Assisted by a crumbling Roman power, the long-haired Salians settled at the mouths of the Rhine and Scheldt. From there they engaged in piracy at the closing of the third century. Subsequently the Salian Franks occupied Toxandria, more or less the current Brabant region in Belgium and the Netherlands. Later, the power and jurisdiction of the Franks expanded further. The capture of the town of Cambrai (also known as Kamerijk) in northern France by their leader Chlodio in AD 430, marks the beginning of Frankish rule. And, of Francia. So, from Humsterland to Hauts-des-France.
The result of all these pirate movements, changing alliances and joint enterprises during a period of around five centuries, was a relatively cultural and linguistical homogeneity, also called Nordseegermanisch ‘North Sea-German’ (Lebecq, 2005). A big melting pot. Communities that were very connected via waterways and seafaring skills. That was quite a different situation before it all started. That time, the Germanic tribes of the sub-Roman world were not entities held together by (again a long German term) a Zusammengehörigkeitgefühl ‘belonging-togetherness’ but were tribally diverse in origin. What brought them together, step by step, was probably the search for loot (John, 1996).
The common language they developed during the Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages is described as a ‘Saxon’ pirate-settlers language and called Coastal Dutch in linguistic research. It is an early form of Frisian. It was spoken from the coast of Flanders to the northwest of Germany. It is generally agreed that the similarities between Coastal Dutch and English date from this period (Schrijver, 2014). When piracy at the British Isles gradually was replaced by settlement in the fifth century, this common language (and culture) was exported to England, explaining the similarities between English and Frisian till this day. The offspring of this language on the continent only survives in province Friesland in the Netherlands and in enclaves further east in northwest Germany, i.e. Saterfriesisch and Nordfriesisch. Today around 350,000 people speak it as mother tongue, and these numbers are slowly but surely declining.
7 - Rebirth of trade
The pull out of the Romans, the common North Sea culture that had developed during the Late Antiquity, but also the improving climate conditions, were the foundations of the rebirth of commercial activities. In fact, the existence of such widespread linguistic communities facilitated contacts between the different shores of northwestern Europe. Towards AD 600, the Frisians and the Anglo-Saxons emerge as the chief instigators of this commercial rebirth. Also, read our blog post How the porcupine gave birth to the U.S. buck to learn more about the extensive volume of the early-medieval Frisians free trade. At the turn of sixth and seventh centuries, the whole wider North Sea region seems to have been affected by this revival of commercial activity. The chief ports of the commercial web were: Quentovic, Walcheren, Dorestat, Lundenwich, Ipswich, Fordwich, Sandwich, Eoforwich, Hamwih, Ribe and Sliaswich. A gazetteer of emporia (Lebecq, 2005). If you want to know more about famous emporium Dorestat, current Wijk bij Duurstede in the Netherlands, check out our blog post The Batwing Doors of Northwest Europe.
8 - Land of the Free
The role of the Frisians in this piece of history is not a very prominent one, as you might have read already. They were one of those Germanic seafaring tribes bordering the Roman Empire and undoubtedly participated within the many coalitions of pirate bands. During the period ca. AD 325-425 almost all of them had abandoned their lands when living conditions climate-wise slowly deteriorated. It is very conceivable the original Frisians had blended into the big confederations of especially those of the Franks and the Saxons.
Historians have wondered, and still do, how it is possible that despite the nearly total depopulation of the Frisian territory, the name Frisia survived and even was adopted by the new settlers from more to the east (i.e. the German Bight) and from southern Scandinavia. Well, the reason is: because of what the name Frisia meant. It was a badge of honour. The word 'frisia' might have derived from the Old-Germanic word frīsijōz and frijaz. This meant something like ‘the free’ or ‘the unbound’ and ‘the brotherly’ (Renswoude, 2012). No name could be more fitting for the new colonists repopulating the tidal marshlands again in the second quarter of the fifth century: the land of the free. It was after all still in a time when pirating was still a vivid culture of the region. Avast! Frisia, the free land of freebooters, where the ocean meets the sand.
We can live together
Where the ocean meets the sand
Won't you take me to the
To the Gypsy Caravan
Despite the fact the heydays of piracy at the southern coast of the North Seas were over at the start of the sixth century, it remained a soft spot for the region.
High Middle Ages
From Adam of Bremen’s Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum ‘deeds of bishops of Hamburg church’ we known Frisian capers operated from the mouth of the river Weserin the High Middle Ages. The territory of the Chauci pirates in the Roman Period. Want to know more of these lying pirates? check out our blog post Arctic sailors ecaped from Cyclops. By the way, the word 'caper' is derived from the Old Frisian word kopia which means 'to buy'. That is also a way of putting it. Check out our blog post Atlantis found! Wait, there is another one, or 7, wait 12, what? 16 in total... No, 19!
Late Middle Ages
After the Privateers’ War between the House of Mecklenburg and Denmark had ended at the closing of the fourteenth century, the pirates under the name Victualienbrüder ‘Victual Brothers’ who had fought alongside the House of Mecklenburg, were kindly thanked for their efforts and services. Everybody knows, one of the most difficult things there is in life, is telling a group of pitiless pirates to quit what they are doing best. It took an army of battle-hardened Teutonic Knights to kick the Victualienbrüder out off the Baltic Sea. One of the most famous captains was Klaus Störtebeker, probably originating from the town of Wiesmar (Germany), although legends differ. Also Rotenburg (Germany) and Termunten (the Netherlands) are said to be his birth place. After the disaster against the superior Teutonic Knights, Klaus Störtebeker fled with his fleet to the coast of Frisia, current region Ostfriesland and -again- in the Roman Period the territory of the Chauci. Here he was granted safe haven by the local Frisian warlords, called Hauptlinge. However, the Hanseatic League, led by the city of seven towers Lübeck, captured and killed him in AD 1400. A year later they captured another pirate captain of the Victualienbrüder, Godeke Michels, when he was with his fleet in -again- Frisian waters near the river mouth of the Weser (Meier, 2004). Both Klaus and Godeke had to walk the plank. In the harbour of Hamburg you can find a statue of Klaus Störtebeker. Yes, the locals are still proud of their pirates.
Early Modern Period
A last pirate who must be mentioned, is Greate Pier. His actual name was Pier Gerlofs Donia and his nickname Kruis der Hollanders 'Cross of the Dutchmen'. He originated from the village of Kimswerd, province Friesland. Legend has it he was really tall and big. His alleged sword of more than two meters is kept in the Fries Museum. He received his nickname for terrorizing the Zuyderzee or Southern Sea in the period AD 1515-1520. Greate Pier, also Grutte Pier, is known too from his Biblical-inspired acid test to identify possible spies of his nemesis the Count of Holland, namely the so-called shibboleth “bûter brea en griene tsiis, wa’t dat net size kin, is gjin oprjochte Fries” (butter, bread and green [i.e. young] cheese, who cannot say that, is not an upright Frisian). Today, the Mid-Frisians mostly call him, euphemistically, a freedom fighter. Yes, the locals are still proud of their pirates.
Not long after Grutte Pier, at the end of the sixteenth century, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands entered the world stage, commonly known as the Dutch Republic. A coalition of the provinces Groningen, Guelders, Frisia, Holland, Utrecht, Overijssel and Zeeland. The Republic was a bastion of maritime pillaging in all its forms and the line between privateer (with commission to plunder and rob) and pirate was often murky, grey, permeable, and migratory (Lunsford, 2005). Moreover, in the culture of the Dutch frijbuiter 'freebooter' was a term denoting both privateers and pirates. Frijbuiters were considered freedom fighters and even the foundation and continious survival of the Republic was partly thanks to these sea robbers, called the Watergeuzen or Sea Beggars. The territory of the Dutch Republic from where all this modern piracy was staged during the entlighted Renaissance Period, coincided almost exactly with the territory of the Late Antiquity piracy, as described in this blog post. A bad habit is difficult to break.
Before we round up, another kind of piracy happened in the same piracy-invested waters of the Roman Period, the southern North Sea. In 1959 the German lightship Borkum Riff III was sold to the Dutch pioneer Radio Veronica to be converted into an offshore radio station at the docks of the habrour of Bremen, Germany. As the name makes clear, this lightship used to mark the reef near the Wadden Sea island Borkum, region Ostfriesland. Pirate station Veronica broadcasted from the North Sea from 1960 till 1974. Soon after Veronica began broadcasting, other radio-pirate ships started broadcasting too from the North Sea. This competition even led to a bomb attack of the Veronica crew at another pirate ship in 1971. We are not joking. DJ's at war. Three years later, the Dutch government introduced an anti-piracy law to end all this anarchy and violence at sea for once and for all. Why had not the Romans thought about legislation too?
Radiohead, Man of War (2017)
Wolfmother, Gypsy Caravan (2016)
Abulafia, D., An ancient history of piracy. How advances in sea power and changes in climate led to widespread piracy at the edge of the Roman Empire (2019)
Abulafia, D., The Boundless Sea: A Human History of the Oceans (2019)
Coleman, C.K. (blog), British Sea-Power in the Age of Arthur (2017)
Coll, S., Ghost Wars. The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (2004)
Doedens, A. & Houter, J., De Watergeuzen. Een vergeten geschiedenis, 1568-1575 (2018)
Emanuel, J.P., Black Ships and Sea Raiders: The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Context of Odysseus' Second Cretan Lie (2017)
Ellmers, D., Frisian and Hanseatic merchants sailed the cog (1985)
Fleming, R., Britain after Rome. The Fall and Rise 400 to 1070 (2010)
Fouracre, P (ed)., The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume I c.500-c.700; Hamerow, H., The earliest Anglo-Saxon kingdoms; Lebecq, S., The northern Seas (fifth to eighth centuries) (2005)
Gelder, van J., Nieuwenhuis, M. & Peters, T. (transl.), Plinius. De Wereld. Naturalis historia (2018)
Harrington, S. & Welch, M., The Early Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Southern Britain, AD 450-650. Beneath the Tribal Hidage (2014)
Haywood, J., Dark Age Naval Power. A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity (1999)
Heijden, van der P., Romeinen langs de Rijn en Noordzee. De limes in Nederland (2020)
Heijden, van der P., Romeinse schepen in het Gelderse Rivierengebied. Deel I: een inventarisatie (2020)
John, E., Reassessing Anglo-Saxon England (1996)
Lunsford, V.W., Piracy and Privateering in the Golden Age Netherlands (2005)
Meier, D., Seefahrer, Händler und Piraten im Mittelalter (2004)
Paine, L., The Sea and Civilization. A Maritime History of the World (2014)
Pearson, A.F., Barbarian Piracy and the Saxon Shore; A reappraisal (2005)
Renswoude, O. (blog), Namen van Nederlandse stammen: Frisii (2012)
Rowley, S.M., The Old English version of Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica (2011)
Schrijver, P., Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages (2014)
Sijs, van der N. (blog), Geleend en uitgeleend: Nederlandse woorden in andere talen en andersom (1998)
Simpson-Housley, P., The Arctic: Enigmas and Myths (1996)
Tschan, F.J., Adam of Bremen. History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen (2002)
Tuuk, De Franken in België en Nederland. Heersers in de vroege middeleeuwen (2016)
Violatti, C. (blog), The Saxons. Definition (2014)