The hearth was in pre- and early-medieval times the holy of holies, the heart of the family. Where you would lay back and groove. Groove on the sound of the rain on the roof. Or, the sound of the sea below. Sloshing against the grassy slopes of your house-platform. A place that was warm and soulful. Filled with good spirits and souls. But how did those early Frisians manage to keep the evil spirits and creatures and sickness at bay? How did they protect their yards and houses? Well, dig this: they did it with grooves.
In this blog post we focus on the terp region. The terp (artificial dwelling mound or platform) culture existed in the north of Germany and of the Netherlands, between the former River Vlie (with its mouth at the Wadden Sea island Vlieland) and the River Weser in Germany. The terp culture is as old as 2,600 years. After the Romans arrived in this area around the date of Christ, we learn the names of the dwellers. It was the territory of the Frisii Maiores ‘Great Frisians’ in the west and the Chauci in the east. Where exactly the border between the two tribes ran, can't be determined anymore. According to the second century AD Greek scholar Ptolemaeus the River Ems was the border between the Phrissioi ‘Frisians’ and the Kauchoi ‘Chauci’. Today this river still is a border. Now between Germany and the Netherlands. The Frisii Minores 'Smaller Frisians' lived more to the south-west what's today more-or-less province Noord Holland.
Good to know upfront reading this blog post is that the classification 'Germanic' for the Frisians is a classification coined by the Romans. Actually, we have no idea if it were Germanic tribes at all. On the contrary, we have indications the culture of the (proto-) Frisians aka the Frisii (and Frisiavones) was partly Celtic (influenced) too. Read our blog post Celtic-Frisian heritage: There’s no dealing with the Wheel of Fortune.
After the Roman Period and the Migration Period, this whole area between the River Vlie and the River Weser had turned into the territory of the (new) Frisians, i.e. present-day provinces Friesland and Groningen in the Netherlands and present-day region Ostfriesland in Germany. This more-or-less would continue to be the status quo from the Early Middle Ages until the fifteenth-sixteenth century AD when this part of tota Frisia was dissolved too.
The second century AD Roman historian Tacitus wrote about the religious, pagan practices of the Germanic tribes in general. For example, that the people didn’t depict their gods as humans and that they worshipped their gods in open-air somewhere at an open spot in a forest. Women could be fortune-tellers and could possess the gift of prophecy. Casting lots and human sacrifice was also part of Germanic rituals. White horses, living 'freely' in the woods, could warn people and could predict future events. There’s very limited information about the gods the Frisians (both the Frisii Majores, the Frisii Minores and the Frisiavones) worshipped. Several names of gods and matres we do know, but basically here our knowledge ends.
Almost two hundred so-called oracle rods (used to cast lots) have been recovered, especially in the region north-west Germany and in the Netherlands. These are dated from the Roman Period into the Middle Ages. Casting lots, therefore, is a pagan practice that survived Christianization. And, aren't we still talking about 'someone's destiny' and, don't we all love the lottery? The oracle rods were made of silver, bronze, bone or horn. According to Tacitus they were made of branches of fruit-bearing trees. It might these wooden lots didn't survive the passage of time. And not only mankind was submitted to lot or destiny, interestingly, the gods too.
Firstly, the goddess Baduhenna. Known from the Battle at the Baduhenna Woods in AD 24. A battle just north of the modern city of Amsterdam between the Frisii Minores and the Roman Army. With on Roman side a bodycount of 1,300 soldiers (Tacitus). How do you mean "minor" Frisians? Secondly, the goddess Hludana. Known from an inscription found in Xanten in the central river area of the Netherlands and more in Germany too, but also from an inscription found in the terp of Beetgum in present-day province Friesland. Perhaps Hludana was worshipped by the Frisii Majores too.
inscription: "To the goddess Hludana,
the fishing contractors,
when Quintus Valerius Secundus acted as tenant,
fulfilled their vow willingly and deservedly."
Beetgum, province Friesland
Thirdly, the matres Frisiavae. Known from an altar stone found in the town of Wissen halfway between Cologne and Frankfurt in Germany. How it ended all the way up there, we haven’t got the foggiest idea. Fourthly, the goddess Nehalennia. Known from the hundreds of stone-altar parts found in the waters near the town of Domburg and from Colijnsplaat both in modern province Zeeland, the Netherlands. This used to be the territory of the Frisiavones, the so-called Romanized Frisians (IJssennagger, 2017). Not only the Frisians, but skippers and traders traveling to Britannia from Trier, Cologne, Nijmegen etc also made offerings to Nehalennia for a safe passage sailing the Channel. Read also our blog post Island the Walcheren: once Sodom and Gomorrah of the North Sea to find out more about Nehalennia.
Lastly, we present you the gods worshipped by the Frisians known from votive inscriptions found all the way in northern Britain. These gods weren't worshipped by your average Frisian. They were mercenaries in the Roman imperial army fighting in Britannia and who were deployed at Hadrian’s Wall. The goddesses they worshipped were the two Alaisiagae, named Baudihillia and Friagabis. Read our blog post Frisian mercenaries in the Roman Army to read more in depth about these soldiers of fortune.
Of all the gods mentioned, we don’t suggest these were specific Frisian gods. We explained merely these were Germanic-Celtic gods worshipped (too) by the Frisians, both the Frisii and Frisianvones. And not even that conclusion is definitive. The picture of these ‘Frisian’ gods is that they were deities, goddesses, women. This fits nicely with what we know from other native Germanic-Celtic gods during the Roman Period, namely that they were all feminine too. And, it's consistent with what the Roman Tacitus wrote about the specific powers attributed to women, mentioned above.
mask of Boerdam, near Middelstum, province Groningen - ca. 500 BC
On some of these rituals we know that they were still practiced by the (new) Frisians in the Early Middle Ages. It was the seventh century AD Saint Wulfram, Archbishop of Sens, who pleaded with King Radbod of Frisia not to perform human sacrifices. The killing could be executed by either hanging or by tying someone up at a pole in the sea during ebb tide to let him or her drown slowly, after being castrated among others. The latter practice is also documented in the late eighth century AD Lex Frisionum where tying up someone at a pole to be drowned by the rising sea, was a punishment for sacrilege of temples, and therefore not a sacrifice per se. By the way, Saint Wulfram is also known from the famous failed baptism of King Radbod (later also known as Redbad), and for this history read our blog post Finally, King Redbad made his point in the European Commission – via Facebook. And, as explained above, the pagan practice of casting lots suvived chritianization as well.
But how about those grooves?
For the terp dwellers (too) it was important that their farmyards and houses were free from evil spirits and souls and from sickness. The concept they used was a barrier model. Similar as the innovative models still being used by policy makers on security, defence and migration. Or, like the force fields in '80s science fiction movies or video games. The old Frisians too drew imaginary circles, with the hearth of the house/farm being the centre. It fits very well with the physical, radial lay-out of a terp village. An artificial, circular mound on flat and treeless tidal marshlands. The outer rings were the salt marshes bordering the sea. It starts with mud and slowly it becomes more solid and suitable for cattle to graze. Often the more inland marshlands were protected with low so-called summer dikes which offered only protection against the regular tide. After that the flanks or slopes of the terp which were used for cultivating crowing crops, cutting sods for construction, for crafts (weaving, blacksmith, pottery and alike) etc. The inner circle was the terp village with houses and sweet water well(s). The well itself contained often deposits as well, like spoke wheels, horse heads etc. Probably also with a ritual meaning.
An interesting artifact has been found in a dung pit in the terp of village Wartena in province Friesland, namely a wooden phallus. It's dated the Roman Period.
When it comes to ward off evil spirits, souls, sicknesses and death, the hearth was the centre. The hearth itself was protected too, testifying frequent deposits found underneath it. Sometimes pieces of wooden wheels were excavated. If interested why wheels were buried and sacred, read our blog post There is no dealing with the Wheel of Fortune.
The first ring was the house, its walls and its doors. Underneath the poles supporting the roof and/or the doorframe, deposits were placed. These could be for example animal bones, terra sigillata and small pots with, perhaps, food offerings placed in it. Other deposits found during excavations of terps are locks of hair. These locks might also have been part of rites of passage, for example a boy turning into a man or warrior, or a girl turning into a woman, and therefore not part of the energy giving rituals for the force field. Also, often at the base of the walls of the houses, skulls of cows, horses and dogs were placed (image below).
home wall protected with bones, excavations terp Ezinge, province Groningen - Iron Age
The second imaginary circle was created immediately around the house. Indeed, this was done by digging grooves, or furrows. Besides these ditches probably functioned as little channels to collect rainwater falling from the roof into the groove and transporting it to the central sweet-water wells (since sweet water was namely very scarce at the salt marshes), these grooves also functioned as protection against evil spirits. The Roman Pliny the Elder wrote already in the first century AD about these water pits, read our blog post The shipwrecked people of the salt marshes.
Then, the third circle. This was the farmyard itself. The force field of the yard was energized with all kinds of deposits, mainly placed in pits. It could be clay pots (again with possible food offerings inside), animal bones and potsherds. Complete skeletons of horses and, regularly, of dogs have been found too.
The final, fourth, circle was made by another round of grooves, furrows and ditches. These bordered the yard. In the ditches again deposits were placed. This could be in-tact (miniature) pots, pottery, potsherds and animal bones. Not always, but pots and pottery also were smashed when deposited. Sometimes even bronze Roman statuettes and brooches were placed in the groove. If the ditches were filled, e.g. because of a terp enlargement, again ritual deposits were being made. Why disband a good protective force field, after it was sealed off? Or was it a way to say 'thanks' for all the protective work done the years before? Some archaeologists argue that deposits were being made when a groove or ditch was dug in new land as a means of compensation for the goddesses and spirits for the infringement of 'their' lands (Tuin, 2015).
But not only bones and skulls of animals were used.
Excavations in the terp region identified human bones and skulls lying all over the place. These bones were used to strengthen the protective power of the circle. Albeit the dead normally were not buried on the terp-mound itself and excarnation above ground was the common funeral practice during the Roman Period, occasionally complete inhumations, both adults and infants, were found under the floor of the house or on the yard. Mostly within a radius of ten to twenty meters. Mandible, femur, tibia, vertebra and skull fragments all have been found in pits, grooves and ditches. Don't be too alarmed, ritual use of human bone is comparable with the relics of Catholic saints of today. These relics still serve as an intermediary between heaven and earth (Van Eijnatten/Van Lieburg, 2006).
cups and amulets made of polished human skull, terp region Frisia - Iron Age / Roman Period
Human skull-bone was even worked. Polished and a hole was perforated into it so it could be used as an amulet. These human amulets and cups have been found in the terps of Arum-Baarderburen, Marrum-De Beer, Stiens-Kramer, Hempens-Glins, Ezinge and of Wierhuizen. Your deceased mother or grandma always close around your neck, and making it difficult for you to breath freely still. The worked skull pieces might even have been used as cups. Or, another possibility, were it former enemies hanging around their necks? And if you think all this is just too weird again, think of the millions of people who perform the holy rite of the Eucharist today and who then consume the blood and flesh of Christ. Also, read our blog post How to bury your mother-in-law to learn more about excarnation practices at the salt marshes, including the role the once big Frisian terp-dogs had in releasing the soul from the flesh.
Archaeologist Nieuwhof gives also as possible explanation for the finds of worked human bone that it was part of rituals to establish the identity of land and house property through the 'presence' of ancestors. To tie the family to the land.
Many of the practices above date from the Roman Period, the Iron Age. But some of the rites and rituals probably survived well into the Early Middle Ages. By then, the Frisians had become your average, classic Germanic tribe. No longer the feminine gods, but the well-known testosteronic gods Donar (Thor), Wodan (Odin) and the typical Frisian god Forseti (also named Foseti) probably worshipped at the red-rock island Heligoland in the North Sea, where the North-Frisian language is spoken to this day. But goddesses existed too, of which Freyja was the most important in the region. One of the pre-medieval superstitious practices that had survived, is digging grooves or furrows.
The proof of this pagan practice is archived in the devotional Vatican. It’s the Codex Palatinus Latinus 577. A book that contains the Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum ‘Small index of superstitious and pagan practices’ and also includes the fascinating Baptismal Vow of Utrecht. It was written in AD 742 or 743, opinions differ, and probably used by Saint Boniface to Christianize the Saxons and the Frisians in the eighth century AD. A relatively obscure god appears in the vow, namely the god Saxnot. Maybe worshipped by the Frisians too, for the Frisians are by and large of Saxon origin (check out our blog post Have a Frisians Cocktail). The Baptismal Vow of Utrecht is also curious, since it's not written in Latin but in an odd mixture of a.o. Old Saxon, Old Frisian and Old Low Franconian (Old Dutch). We can compare it with the fusion languages of Papiamento and Patois of today. Imagine how the Anglo-Saxon bishop Boniface baptised pagan Saxons and Frisians reciting this creole vow:
Forsachistu diobolæ? Et respondeat: ec forsacho diabolæ.
End allum diobolgeldæ? Respondeat: end ec forsacho allum diobolgeldæ.
End allum dioboles uuercum? Respondeat: end ec forsacho allum dioboles uuercum
and uuordum thunær ende woden ende saxnote ende allum them unholdum the hira genotas sint.
Gelobistu in got alamehtigan fadær? Ec gelobo in got alamehtigan fadær.
Gelobistu in crist godes suno? Ec gelobo in crist gotes suno.
Gelobistu in halogen gast? Ec gelobo in halogan gast.
Do you forsake the Devil? And the answer must be: I renounce the Devil.
And all Devil’s money [sacrifices to the devil]? The answer must be: And I forsake Devil's money.
And all Devil’s work? The answer must be: And I forsake all Devil’s works
and words Donar and Wodan and Saxnot and all demons who are their followers.
Do you believe in God the Almighty Father? I believe in God the Almighty Father.
Do you believe in Christ, God's Son? I believe in Christ, God's Son.
Do you believe in the Holy Spirit? I believe in the Holy Spirit.
And now the indiculus 'index' itself.
This index is without the book, which has been lost. So, we have to judge the book by its cover this time. The index is written in Latin, although it contains a few Germanic words that they couldn’t translate in Latin back then, namely nimida (the sanctuary in the forest, and maybe the same spot Tacitus identified), nodfyr (translated as 'holy fire', and considered the oldest Low Franconian/Old Dutch word survived too) and yrias (a kind of run). In total 30 rituals and pagan practices are listed.
de sacrilegio ad sepulchra mortuorum ‘of sacrilege at the graves of the dead’
de sacrilegio super defunctos i.e. dadsisas ‘of sacrilege to the dead, i.e. the death feast’
de spurcalibus in Februario ‘of swinish feasts in February’
de casulis i.e. fanis ‘of small buildings, i.e. shrines’
de sacrilegiis per ecclesias ‘of sacrilege in churches’
de sacris silvarum, quae nimidas vocant ‘of sanctuaries in woods they call nimidas’
de his, quae faciunt super petras ‘of those things they do upon the rocks’
de sacris Mercurii vel Iovis ‘of the sanctuaries of Mercury and Jupiter’
de sacrificio, quod fit alicui sanctorum ‘of the sacrificial service for some saints’
de philacteriis et ligaturis ‘of amulets and knots’
de fontibus sacrificiorum ‘of fountains of sacrifices’
de incantationibus ‘of incantations’
de auguriis vel avium vel equorum vel bovum stercora vel sternutationes ‘of auguries from manure from birds, horses or cattle and sneezing’
de divinis vel sortilegis ‘of diviners or sorcerers’
de igne fricato de ligno i.e. nodfyr ‘of the fire made from the friction of wood, i.e. nodfyr’
de cerebro animalium ‘of the brain of animals’
de observatione pagana in foco vel in inchoatione rei alicuius ‘of the observance of the pagans on the hearth, or at the start of any business’
de incertis locis, que (quae) colunt pro sanctis ‘of undetermined places they worship as sanctuary’
de petendo, quod boni vocant sanctae Mariae ‘of bed-straw which good people call Saint Mary’
de feriis, quae faciunt Iovi vel Mercurio ‘of feasts they hold for Jupiter or Mercury’
de lunae defectione, quod dicunt vince luna ‘of the lunar eclipse they call vince luna’
de tempestatibus et cornibus et cocleis ‘of creating storms and horns and snail shells’
de sulcis circa villas ‘of grooves encircling houses’
de pagano cursu, quem yrias nominant, scis[s]is pannis vel calciamentis ‘of the pagan race they call yrias, with torn clothes and shoes’
de eo, quod sibi sanctos fingunt quoslibet mortuos ‘of this, what they describe as a holy death’
de simulacro de consparsa farina ‘of the idol made of dough’
de simulacris de pannis factis ‘of idols made from torn clothes’
de simulacro, quod per campos portant ‘of the idol carried through fields’
de ligneis pedibus vel manibus pagano ritu ‘of wooden feet and hands in a pagan rite’
de eo, quod credunt, quia femine(ae) lunam comende(n)t, quod possint corda hominum tollere iuxta paganos ‘of this, which they believe, that women command the moon, so they can take out people’s heart according to the pagans’
Practice number 23 is the one about grooves or ditches, often translated as furrows. Since the index is very general, it’s difficult or impossible to really understand what the superstitious rituals actually did look like and what their purpose was. Nevertheless, it gives us a rare insight into some of the pre-Christian practices of the Saxons and the Frisians during the Early Middle Ages.
Although not in the terp region, the practice of grooves in ritual practices has been found in a clay mound at present-day town of Katwijk in province Noord Holland in the Netherlands as well. This terp was actually a burial ground more-or-less during the Roman Period. Here circular grooves have been excavated, encircling cremation graves. Also from other burial grounds from the Iron Age in the Netherlands we know that these burial grounds were considered transitional places between earth and the world of spirits. The grounds were often encircled by furrows.
The (religious) practice or ritual of making grooves didn't stop in the Middle Ages. Churches in Westphalia, Germany and in the Netherlands have grooves scratched in stones on the exterior of ca. 25 cm long and 5 to 6 cm wide and deep. This practice continued well into the twentieth century AD. You can find them for example at the southern door of the church of the terp village Loppersum, on sarcophagus in the church of terp village Termunten, in the Saint Boniface church of terp village Wehe-Den Hoorn and on a tomb lid of the former cloister of Ter Apel. All these examples are in province Groningen. Also, the teeny tiny terp village Jannum in province Friesland has lids of sarcophagus and altar stones with grooves. But in many more places in the Netherlands grooves can be found, like the churches in Aardenburg, Goes, Naarden, Kortgene and Rhoon. Mostly these grooves are made in sandstone and the gravel that came of it was often disolved in water and used to cure ilnesses. By the way, not only gravel was used, but pulverized human bone as well. This latter practice was documented by historian Gregory of Tours in the sixth century AD.
Only recently the Chinese government legalized rhino and tiger bone for medical purposes. If people still believe in the medicinal remedy of bone, wouldn't it better that they return to the old practices and use human bone again or the gravel of holy stones?
After reading all of the above, from human skull cups and amulets, to inhumations under house floors, bones placed in grooves and the Indicules, we leave it now to your own imagination what the world and people looked like from the Roman Period to the Early Middle Ages. Knowing, of course, a lot had changed between these two eras.
Baby, just sing about the groove (Sing it)
Note: The Roman gods (as mentioned in the pagan practices number 8 and 20 of the indiculus) Jupiter and Mercury were replaced in the Germanic religion by respectively Donar/Thor and Wodan/Odin. After christianization these gods were replaced by respectively the apostle Saint Peter and the archangel Michael.
Note: Check out more heathen (funeral) practices, some of which even have survived at the former salt marshes till this very day, in our blog post How to bury your mother-in-law?
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