• Hans Faber

How the porcupine gave birth to the U.S. buck

This year (May 5th) it is exactly 200 years ago Karl Marx was born. When in AD 1867 he published the first part of Das Kapital, Marx was actually 1,300 years too late to turn the tide. The ship had sailed. Ships of selfish Frisian merchants in pursuit of personal wealth, to be precise. If only Karl had known, the world would have been a, lets say, different place today.

One might say originally the Frisians have much in common with sea nomads. Living on one of those little pieces of our planet that was neither land nor sea, and accepting no higher authority than the gods they worshiped. Since central power structures cannot get hold to these twilight-lands. During the turbulent Migration Period and its aftermath this sea-people with their nautical skills, being possibly even the first to re-introduce sails again since the pullout of the Romans, and with a lifestyle forced to be pragmatic, had recognized the opportunities the dangerous waterwolf offers. Seas were, and are, in fact the medieval interstate highways. With their ships and sails, their overseas network and these excellent ‘highways’ the Frisian merchants in pursuit of a profit were crucial for the rebirth of commercial activity in Western Europe and, moreover, they lay the foundation for free-trade and economic liberalism as we know it today. A concept of thinking and of working together globally, conquering the world of Homo sapiens ever since. Or should we say, a concept that hás conquered the world? The prison of path evolution, and no escaping it anymore.

Ruler Audulfus

It's no coincidence the name of ruler Audulfus, or Audulf, of Frisia has been preserved on Frisian coin money when the birth of liberalism was about to take place. It are solidi minted around AD 600. Money with a portrait comparable to a U.S. dollar note with the portrait of president George Washington on it. The era ruler or King Audulf lived, marks the start of the heyday of the Frisian trade.

The first coins revealing the name of Audulfus were found in April 1897 in the village Escharen near the River Meuse and the city of Nijmegen in the east of the Netherlands. These coins were part of a hoard consisting of twelve golden solidi and fifty-four tremesses dating between 491 BC-AD 630. Therefore, the hoard must have been buried at AD 630 latest and places the reign of Audulf at the end of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century AD. Even between AD 534-AD 628, according to some scholars. Later on, more coins have been found and even a die designed for the minting of coins with the name Audulf. All unearthed in the Netherlands. In total between five coins (according to Faber) and seven coins (according to Dijkstra) have been found bearing the Latin texts:


The way the legacy of King Audulfus (mind you, a contemporary of Anglo-Saxon King Æthelbert of Kent, and under whose rule production of gold tremisses started) is being handled, is at best extremely sloppy. We are still flabbergasted to be honest. No consistent overview and inventories of these coins exists. One coin has been lost, alas. Some coins are being kept in London. Other coins were archived at the Nederlands Muntmuseum (Netherlands' coin museum) at first, but after the Muntmuseum closed down in 2013 the complete coin collection was divided -or scattered- between De Nederlandse Bank (National Bank of the Netherlands) and Rijksmuseum voor Oudheden (National Museum for Antiquities). Though we try not to see similarities with the monetary system of the European Central Bank, we can’t escape the conclusion of Dijkstra seven years ago: “A total overview and a thorough analysis of these [Audulf] coins, as well as their place within the coinage system, is urgently needed.” Indeed, it is. Dijkstra wrote it seven years ago.

Besides Adulf there are three more 'big men' known from early-medieval golden coins. Only with a coin each.

The first of the three other Frisian big names handed down via a gold solidius is that of Skānomōdu (see pic below). The found conditions have been lost, alas. Although without provenance it was part of the collection of King George III and donated in AD 1825 to the British Museum. It's dated the first quarter of the sixth century AD but can be as old as AD 423, which is the numismatical date ante quem non. It was also used as a pendant (quite common practice). The name is written in so-called anglo-frisian type runes and means something like skauna 'beautiful' (comparable with modern Mid-Frisian skjin/skiente) and mōda 'brave' (comparable with modern Mid-Frisian moed). It must have been an important type too, but no further archaeological or historical information exists about Skanomodu, to date. With this, ᛋᛣᚨᚾᛟᛗᛟᛞᚢ 'skanomodu' is the oldest written Frisian word known, and therefore the oldest written word of the Netherlands too. Good it's proudly kept in the British Museum. Much safer there, if we see how the Dutch handle the solidi of Audulf. There's also a theory Skanomodu wasn't a personal name of a man but that of a woman (Nielsen, 1993). Not a big man, but a whole lotta woman.

Skanomodu, Frisia
ᛋᛣᚨᚾᛟᛗᛟᛞᚢ / Skanomodu (right), sixth century AD

The second Frisian 'big name' is that of Had(d)a (see pic below). This name has been preserved in runes as ᚻᚨᛞᚨ on a gold solidus as wel, found in the area of the town of Harlingen, province Friesland in the Netherlands and generally dated the third quarter of the sixth century AD. Again, just like Skanomodu we have no clue as to who Had(d)a was. All we can say is that the name probably derives from Old-Germanic haþu 'battle'. There's no additional historical or archaeological material available about this person, again, to date. There's one historian who suggests Hada was the same as bishop Ceadda from Northumbria. Ceadda was the teacher of Saint Wilfrid who once stayed at the court of King Aldgisl of Frisia. It's then that Wilfrid gave this coin of Ceadda or Hedda as a gift to Aldgisl (Kramer, 2016). You have to be well-rested to follow the reasoning of this theory. We still haven't had enough sleep yet. Concerning the pic below, unfortunately, we haven't found better images on the web yet.

hada solidus Harlingen
ᚻᚨᛞᚨ / Had(d)a, sixth century AD

The last one is Wela(n)du. This golden coin was found on a field near teh village of Schweindorf in northern Germany in 1948. It's dated between AD 575-625 or even AD 575-600. The name of this Frisian 'big man' was Weladu and the name is written (backwards) in runes too: ᚹᛖᛚᚩᛞᚢ 'weladu'. Read our blog post Weladu the flying blacksmith. It's being kept in Ostfriesischen Landesmuseum Emden in Germany. The intriguing thing of this name is that it's the name of Weland or Wayland the Smith. The mythical blacksmith in Germanic mythology, mentioned in several old written sources, including the epic poem Beowulf and the Deor poem. Then, of course, we cannot avoid to speculate that the famous blacksmith Wayland was a Frisian.

weladu - wayland the smith
ᚹᛖᛚᚩᛞᚢ / Weladu, late sixth century AD

Besides the vanity of (early-medieval) rulers, the question arises what the cash flows and the long-distance trade of the Frisians looked like? Bellow we have tried to give a very basic overview, knowing that the world of early-medieval coin is voluminous, detailed and truly, truly complex. If you want to have an optical impression of the world of medieval coin, check out the publicly accessible numismatic information system (NUMIS-database) of De Nederlandse Bank. But be careful. Do not get hooked on this type of money too!

The silver age of golden coin

After the Romans arrived in the north-west of Europe they introduced the money economy. Coinage was regulated, meaning coins had a certain appearance and were mainly made of solid gold.

In the Netherlands in total 1.100 golden solidi and tremisses have been found,

of which 100 pieces at the Walcheren Island (Domburg) in the province Zeeland.

In the third and fourth century AD the Roman Empire started to crumble. According to Gildas' Ruin of Britain written in the sixth century AD, the retreat of the Romans from Britain went with much bloodshed. Gildas: "Fragments of corpses, covered with a purple crust of congealed blood, looked as though they had been mixed up in some dreadful wine-press." It was around AD 400 the Romans had left Britain. Although Roman silver and low-value bronze coins continued to circulate in Britain in the fifth and sixth century AD, their volume and role in commerce changed. On the other side of the North Sea, the Limes Germanicus along the lower parts of the River Rhine were abandoned already in the third century AD and around AD 300 most of the castella 'fortresses' in the Netherlands had been given up by the Romans. Around AD 400 all presence of the Romans had disappeared from the Netherlands. With the total fall of the Western Roman Empire at the end of the fourth century AD, trade and cities shrunk and the money economy, especially north of the River Seine, collapsed. Barter being again the primary means of local trade from then on. One relativisation, though, the agricultural economy and goods were and stayed mostly unmonetized, before, during and after the Romans.

Nevertheless, not long after the fall of the Roman Empire, Germanic tribes did start to produce coin themselves. These were loose copies of Roman solidi and thus depicting fictional emperor’s heads and 'real' deities. This way local rulers ordering the mint presented themselves as rightful heir of Roman Rule. To this tradition might belong the coins of Audulfus, Had(d)a, Weladu and Skanomodu mentioned above. At first there was no regulation of coinage but at the end of the sixth century AD the Franks set first steps towards regulation. Additional to an emperor’s portrait, the name of the mint location and of the mint master were added on the coin too. Measures adding trust to the currency. From this period names of circa 1,500 mint masters have been preserved.

The Frisians and the Anglo-Saxons started minting coin at the same time as the Franks did, namely at the end of the sixth century AD. The Frisian approach was somewhat different and more pragmatic than that of the Franks you could say.

dronryp tremissis
tremissis Dronrijp-type

The solidi were not workable in the north as they represented too much value. Therefore, tremisses were being produced weighing a third of a solidus and contained less gold. Its appearance was more stylized with unrecognizable portraits and unreadable, pseudo-lettering characters. Don't judge a book by its cover. What's inside that counts.

Interestingly, early seventh century AD mint master Madelinus moved from a town with religious prestige, where the fourth century AD bishop Saint Servatius was buried, namely the town of Maastricht in the far south of present-day the Netherlands, to the commercial hub of Dorestat (also Dorestad or Dorestate or Dorestado). Indicating the growing importance of this buzzing trading town in the lower River Rhine area at the former spot of the former Roman castellum Levafanum. On its way to become the biggest emporium of Europe even. Remarkable, whilst during the decennia before the mint of Maastricht had set the example for coinage in the region, a coin (confusingly) called Dronrijp-type by archaeologists. Dronrijp being a small terp village in province Friesland in the far north of the Netherlands. In his new town, from mid seventh century AD, master Madelinus struck coins with the text DORESTATI FIT meaning something like ‘made in Dorestat' and similar to today's ‘made in China’. And his coin was what we would call today a strong brand. During his life Madelinus’ coins were being copied abundantly but actually were not made in Dorestat.

A last remark concerning the age of the golden coin is, although suitable for payment, these coins functioned moreover as symbol of power, of status and of ceremony. And, always, for paying taxes. Thus this type of cash was not circulating fast and was hoarded a lot. Not suitable for the shaking money-making trade that was about to emerge.

The golden age of silver coin

The true golden age of coin started when they were being made of silver.

In the Netherlands in total 3.000 denarii en sceattas have been found,

of which an amazing 1.000 from the Walcheren at modern Domburg.

Around AD 650 an important development took place: the Franks and the Frisians started to mint silver coins. As often real great innovations are small steps. Two decennia later, the neighboring Anglo-Saxons on the other side of the Channel followed their example. From then on, no golden coins were struck anymore in the whole wide region. A new utilitarian currency was needed to facilitate the growing long-distance trade. This trade needed a cheap coin that circulated quick, that had no ceremonial use as such, and stayed within circulation. Cheaper, because one golden tremissis was still worth the support of a child for a whole year. That represented a lot value. Ask any devorced parent paying alimony. Anyway, too much for the trade.

The solution was the dinarius or penny and widely known as sceatta. Sceatta is derived from the Old Germanic word ‘skaet’ and comparable with the modern Mid-Frisian word ‘skat’. Sceats or sceattas were minted in England, Frisia, Francia and in Jutland. And it had another advantage: access to silver was more easy for the Franks with silver mines in southern Europe whereas gold had to be imported from outside the Continent. The discovery of silver in central Europe might also have stimulated the production of silver sceattas (Blackburn 2003). The Frisians, however, probably purchased silver for their private mints also, or even mainly, from their trading partners in southern Scandinavia. This was possible due to a positive trading balans of the Scandinavians. Southern Scandinavia got its silver via the eastern trading routes, from the silver mines in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The purchase of silver was financed with the trade of among others fur and ivory. And for those wondering about all the truly global connections, yes, we are still talking about the Early Middle Ages.

Of the silver coins produced by the Anglo-Saxons, the Franks and the Frisians, the thick Frisian sceattas were the real hit, especially in the eighth century AD. Frisian sceattas were produced from the end of the sixth century AD well into the last quarter of the eighth century AD. It was the U.S. dollar of the Early Middle Ages, certainly in the wider North Sea region and the Frisians sceattas (sceatta series E and D) flooded into England (Blackburn 2003). The rough picture of sceattas in England was: ten percent minted in York, ten percent minted in Southamton (Hamwic), thirty percent minted in East Anglia and fifty percent minted in Kent and London (Lundunwic). On top of this, more than twenty percent of the total English money consisted of Frisian sceattas (Metcalf 2003). The south coast of England and Humberside reached even thirty percent Frisian sceattas. The D and E sceatta series were heavily represented in the hoards found at Aldborough (Norfolk) of London and, notably, of Fincham. The Fincham hoard consited solely of crisp porcupines (sceatta series E). Like paying with dollars in, for example, West-African countries today. And to quote Michael Metcalf: "The Frisian sceattas were pervasive. There was no part of England which the Frisian money failed to reach." This, by the way, in stark contrast to Merovingian coins. Not even one percent of foreign coinage in England originated from the powerful, but deep-in-the-woods, Franks.

And again, the stylized and rougher appearance of these coins was different from their continental-southern and overseas-western neighbors. The traditional portrait of an emperor and deity had become a Picasso-like abstract and resembled more a porcupine. Hence the name porcupine (sceatta series E) is today’s prevailing archaeological classification. That’s, by the way, not without tradition as the word ‘buck’ refers to a deerskin used in the past by American trappers as a unit for barter. The porcupine came in many different variations since many different moneyers struck these coins spread over Frisia. Frisia back then, the coastal territories stretching from the River Zwin in Belgium to the River Weser in Germany.

porcupine sceatta Frisia
sceatta porcupine type

Besides the porcupine other (also non-Frisian) sceatta types circulated as well, of which the 'Wodan/monster-type' was a remarkable one. It looks like Wodan/Odin with a spine haircut. Although these are called Wodan/monster-type the image might not depict the god Wodan at all and might be a portrait of Christ instead. If so, Christ must have had the same funky hairdresser as Wodan. Think it's strange to connect money with religion? No, it isn't. Putting the name of your god on money is still popular to date. 'In God we trust', is for everyone a well known phrase. And we know about what money we are talking about. In medieval England there are indications that coinage was commissioned and supervised by minsters. Some Anglo-Saxon pennies carried the inscription MONITA SCORUM 'money of the saints'.

Perhaps things made to function as alienable items (like metal coins) also need to refer to an overarching, permanent 'totality'. Money, a commodity par excellence even in our secular times, tends to be decorated with symbols of national identity and/or religion. There are indication this social mechanism, i.e. things that function as alienable commodities need to have a cultural reference, was already in place in the Bronze Age, 3200-600 BC (Fontijn, 2020).

sceatta Frisia
sceatta Wodan/ monster type

In heathen Frisia no religious authorities, monasteries or minsters were involved. Sceattas were minted by these pagans all over Frisia with Dorestat in the central river area, the terp region in the north, the Schouwen Island and the Walcheren Island in the south-west being the main minting sites. 'Productive sites' still for archaeologists and metal detectorists. If interested in the importance of the Walcheren Island in the Early Middle Ages, read our blog post The island Walcheren: once Sodom and Gomorrah of the North Sea.

Despite the lack of central power, coinage flourished in the Frisia territories. The fact that the Franks, who ruled over big parts of Frisia from the eighth century AD, were not able to install a proper feudal structure, the normal payment in kind was not possible. Therefore, these payments were often done in coin, which in turn stimulated the money economy within Frisia even further.

The Frisian middlemen used silver sceattas to purchase goods for the long-distance trade. For example, with sceattas buying goods in East Anglia, transporting the stuff via emporium Dorestat to the upper River Rhine region to sell it at the markets of for example Cologne and Worms. This way thousands of coins found their way (far) outside Frisia for the import of goods. In England 3,000 Frisian sceattas already have been found, outnumbering local Anglo-Saxon production. Frisian coins entered England via all major points of entry along the North Sea coast and along the south coast. Vice versa it’s not the case and Anglo-Saxon coins consist only a minor part of coins that circulated within Frisia and the wider region.

And Frisian money found its way via these export payments outside the North Sea region too. For example, in the Baltic Sea area at the former eighth century AD trading town of Reric at modern Groß Strömkendorf in the Bay of Wismar in north-east Germany, thirty Frisian sceattas have been found. Being second after sixty Arabic dirhams. Dirhams reached Scandinavia via the eastern trading routes, as explained above.

Calculations have been made about the number of sceattas that might have been produced and these numbers are so gigantic they are almost too difficult to accept. During the period ca. AD 710-750 around 4,000 dies were being used. And a staggering fifty million sceattas might have been produced between ca. AD 695-800 of which the majority was of Frisian origin. Yes, it's almost too difficult to accept. And although not all dies were in existence at the same time, the volume of the coinage was "remarkably high" as researchers have put it with a feel of understatement.

Birth of economic liberalism

The word 'Frisian' became synonymous to 'free trade'. The Frisian Trade. It was Frisian money that made the world go round and the North Sea was the podium where the self-interested Frisian merchants spun their commercial web. A trade that started at the end of the sixth century AD and was on its height during the eighth and beginning of the ninth century AD. Indeed, after Frisia was incorporated within Francia in the first half of the eighth century AD, the trade network survived and even flourished well into the tenth century AD, although for a short while not financed with Frisian sceattas but with Frankish. The fact that the Franks gained control over Dorestat and its revenues, it meant also that the Frisian merchants could gain better access to the Frankish hinterland. Private mint production in Frisia picked up probably quick after the monetary reforms of the Franks, since the Frankish kingdoms lost their grip on northern and eastern Frisia pretty soon after it had been submitted. Not without reason the Mare Germanicum or the Mare nostrum 'our sea', as the North Sea was called by the Romans, was renamed Mare Fresicum 'Frisian Sea' from the end of the Migration Period and kept the name throughout the Early Middle Ages.

At ipsi, cum navigarent circa Pictos, vastaverunt Orcades insulas, et venerunt et occupaverunt regiones plurimas ultra Mare Frenessicum usque ad confinium Pictorum

'But when they sailed around the Picts, they wasted the Orkney islands, and they went and occupied many regions past the Frisian Sea till the border of the Picts.' (Historia Britonum of Nennius, ninth century AD, quoting Gildas, sixth century AD)

Mare Fresicum, id est quod inter nos Scottosque est

'The Frisian Sea, that lies between us and the Scot.' (Historia Britonum of Nennius, ninth century AD).

In AD 1076 Adam of Bremen wrote the Gesta hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum 'History of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen'. In his Gesta Adam still spoke of the river Eider that flows into the Frisian Ocean.

If you had the ships and you knew how to sail, long distances could be covered relatively quickly. Much quicker than over land and river anyway. The Frisian ships were clinker-built early cogs (Early Middle Ages) which were replaced by the smarter carracks, also called hulks (High Middle Ages), with the carvel technique. It has been calculated that travelling from the town of Rijnsburg at the mouth of the River Old-Rhine to the town of Norwich took two days. That's around two-hundred-twenty kilometers as the crow flies. While travelling from Rijnsburg to Dorestat, at the present-day city Wijk bij Duurstede, via the river took seven days and over land four days, around seventy kilometers as the crow flies. Even the current name ‘North Sea’ could be a Frisian geographical perspective as it’s east of England, west of Denmark and -indeed- north of Frisia. But, with hindsight the North Sea actually should have been named Interstate Highway 1.

Frisian merchant, Frisia
early-medieval Frisian merchant, impression by Arne Zuidhoek

With their dynamic large-scale and supra-regional trade the tall Frisian merchants welded the North Sea, the upper River Rhine region, the English-Channel area and parts of the Baltic Sea into one economic zone. Maybe not yet a fully operational European Economic Area, but it was getting there. On both sides of the Channel a new economic world was created: the trade settlements or wics (or wijk or vicus or wich or wiccium or vico or vic or wico et cetera) tripled in size during the first half of the eighth century AD and also the coin finds support this economic development during the late seventh and eighth centuries AD. For a large part all because of the doing of Frisian merchant activity in the seventh until the beginning of the ninth century AD, after which their Viking cousins took over the hegemony at sea but clearly with a more imperialistic business model. Yet again, Frisian trade-networks survived despite this new hegemony, just as it had done after the Franks had conquered them. An indication of the strong position of their network, excellent nautical skills and mayby their pragmatic life style. But, maybe also an indication that the Frisians culturally were still not that far removed from their northern and heathen cousins. Yes, the Frisians would soon even join the Viking raids with significant numbers. Read more about this adventurism in our blog post Foreign Fighter returning from Viking war bands. Frisia continued to stay a prosperous seafaring nation throughout most of the Middle Ages although less phenomenal as during the Early Middle Ages.

The geographical position of Frigonum patria 'motherland Frisia' was central. The technical, nautical skills and the commercial fleet of this sea-people were other crucial assets. It’s known that Frisian traders sailed in specific vessels and operated in convoys. Also, reports of near-contemporaries describe these rough merchants as a tight and organized community and sharing economic risks. Characteristics that are no surprise for a people living on the edge of the sea. A population regularly partly washed away by devastating great storm floods. Furthermore, being part of the wider North Sea culture this people possessed the right linguistic and cultural background needed for this international or overseas trade. Having the Anglo-Saxons and the Danish peoples as their cousins. At the same time the Frankish landlubbers were their direct neighbors and intensive contacts therefore existed with them too. And with permanent Frisian presence at important overseas commercial hubs, this people must have been well connected and well informed about business opportunities and about relevant social and political developments in the region for doing business effectively.

Neighboring Saxony stayed quite isolated and economically backward. Despite being surrounded by the Frisian trade networks the Saxons didn't connect. Finds of coins are rather sparse and it took till the second half of the tenth century before the Saxons started minting coins significantly.

Frisian trade Early Middle Ages
main routes early-medieval Frisian trade - Lebecq

The (early) medieval trade connections were truly dazzling and emporium Dorestat being the biggest trading port of northwest Europe at that time. Dorestat located at the junction where the mighty River Rhine had split itself around AD 300 into the River Old Rhine, or the River Kromme Rijn 'Crooked Rhine', flowing north via Trajectum (present-day Utrecht) to the current town Katwijk and the River Lek flowing west to the current city Rotterdam, arguably the successor of Dorestat. From Utrecht the trading town Dorestat was connected via the River Vecht to Lake Almere (today Lake IJssel) and the River Vlie flowing north into the Wadden Sea. From there on eyes on southern Scandinavia. A vicus nominatissimus 'a town of very great repute' as it was named in AD 834 by Saint Ludger, the apostle of the Frisians. A settlement that extended over three41 kilometres along the river with jetties that had a lenght up to two-hundred metres.

The Frisians, with their important trading centers and entrepots Dorestat, but also the Walcheren Island (Walachria/ Walacras/ Walichrum) and the Schouwen Island, traded with the British Isles, especially with the kingdoms of East Anglia, Isle of Wight and of Kent. Probably already from the sixth century AD trade relations existed between the (new) Anglo-Saxon world and Frisia (Brooks and Harrington, 2010). Places like Flixborough, Fordwich, emporium Ipswich (giving access to East Anglia), emporium London (Lundenburth, Lundenwic; giving access to Mercia), Sandwich and emporium Southampton (Hamwih, Hamwic; giving access to Wessex) belong to the Frisian network. Early-medieval Frisian merchants have been documented in texts in e.g. London and York (Eboracum, Eoforwic; giving access to Northumbria).

Regarding the Continent the Frisian presence and trade extended to Saint-Denis near Paris, Rouen and, of course, the great emporium Quentovic near modern-day Boulogne. Frisian sceattas have been found all the way in Marseille in southern France. The Frisians were also trading intensively in Birten/ Xanten, Hamburg, Cologne, Worms, Mainsz and Trier.

With Scandinavian tribes more to the north the Frisian free-trade network encompassed the wics (markets) of Ribe, the island Bornholm and Haedum (later Hedeby and Haithabu) in respectively Denmark and Germany. It's on ninth century AD coins struck in Hedeby where cog-shaped ships are depicted for the first time, probably Frisian ships (Meier, 2004). Legend has it the town of Ribe, being the oldest town of Scandinavia, was even founded to attract the rich Frisian trade. Speculation Ribe even was founded by the Frisians. But also in southern Norway and southern and eastern Sweden with respectively the trading towns Sciringssal (now Kaupang), Birka and later Sigtuna the Frisian traders were well connected. And as said, of course, also into the Baltic sea with Frisian presence at the trading place/ emporium Reric at present-day Groß Strömkendorf at the Bay of Wismar in the north-east of Germany. 'International' presence here of people of Franks, Saxons and Frisians has been established based on grave rituals, coins and pottery.

And it were not solely merchants passing by during the sailing season in the trading places mentioned above. More permanent settlers existed too. Frisian colonies had been established in many of these towns, including the establishment of local Frisian guilds. And besides trading, the Frisians also built their early cogs, perhaps named Cokingi.

As we have seen already, the Frisians were keen financiers. Doing business requires a balance between pragmatism and giving trust. If people trusted the trader they trusted his own minted money and his goods. Producing massive amounts of cheap silver coins was a pragmatic innovation and if not invented by the Frisians at least exploited to the max by them. And although no governmental supervision existed and the mint of coinage was a free occupation, the money makers were able to maintain the weight of silver of sceattas at a constant 1,3 grams. Whilst the Anglo-Saxon pennies originally weighing 1,3 grams too, slowly devalued in the amount of silver, despite supervision of minsters or feudal authority. Do we here a renewed plead for deregulation? Frisian pragmatism was further illustrated in the way they dealt with Scandinavia. The Norsemen still refused the money economy and payments were solely done in silver or gold well into the tenth century AD; and some Scandinavian countries still refuse to join the euro-zone. The '90s pop song ‘No tengo dinero’ of a Danish boy band thus fitted perfectly within an old Viking tradition too.

Anyhow, when coins were cut or bend by their northern cousins needed to establish to silver content and to be sure it were no fakes, Frisian merchants had no problem with it. Regardless the fact cutting of coins was forbidden by Frankish law after most of Frisia had been incorporated into Francia in the first half of the eighth century AD. They simply struck the Deal if the price was right. No scruples, no matter what distant Frankish kings thought. It was business, it was capitalism,it was making a profit. With silver money they bought goods, oh, and slaves too. Goods and slaves not for personal use but primarily for the sale somewhere else. Shipped to be sold for a higher price where the demand was higher. The effort put into was the labor for transportation. The surplus (partly) was probably invested again to enlarge the trade. Thus accumulating wealth with individuals: the Frisian middlemen.

The trade consisted of -among others- hides and parchment, bone, wool and cloth (the famous locally produced pallium Fresonicum, read our blog post about this expensive commodity), milk products like cheese and butter, eggs, flax and linen, wood, jewelry, pottery (including Tating-type being the fine luxurious stuff), glassware (including funnel beakers), arms, spices, walnuts, raisins, olive oil, gold brocade, Chinese silk, exotic shells, beads, wine from the upper River Rhine area, tephrite grindstones, mortars and whetstones of sandstone or quartzite, furs from Scandinavia, walrus ivory, amber, grain, construction wood, ore, dried and salted fish, combs and -as said- slaves. The first Frisian merchant documented in written history traded in slaves in Lundunwic (London) in AD 673. Many of these goods clearly meant for luxury as well and were part of the gift economy that had arisen after the Migration Period; the era of ring-givers and an inspiration for the trilogy Lord of the Rings too. Read also our blog post Tolkien pleaded in favor of king Finn the fifth century AD Frisian king mentioned in a.o. the Old English epic Beowulf.

Poor Marx. He would have become nauseous when he would read all this. To soften his pain, though, the Frisians did produce too. Like Frisian broadcloth and salt which were highly sought-after products. If you want to know more about the famous Frisian broadcloth read our blog post Haute couture from the salt marshes. And to soften Marx' pain even further, the offspring of these Frisian self-interested traders ended up living at a poor, aging and sagging countryside threathened by a rising sea level due to global warming.

Lastly. For long there was no significant central power. Frisian trade was commissioned neither by secular powers nor by minsters, abbeys, cloisters or monasteries or other important people dressed in robes or capes. In alignment with the principles of economic liberalism it were individuals and their relatives who were trading freely and purely for their personal benefit. No imperialism, to be clear. It was an open market that was almost completely regulated without any state interference: a mercantile community operating outside royal (state) controle. As illustrated above, even coinage was successfully organized on the local level until the centralist Franks intervened for a short while. A thousand years later, during the Golden Age, the Dutch Republic took liberalism and the triangle trade to a next level, in many aspects. With the very same sea-coastal area still having the lead, only by then carrying the free-republic names Friesland, Holland and Zeeland. Therefore, if you think the United States are the true representatives of economic liberalism and republicanism, know who their ancestors are.

One of the ancestors, literally, was the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His Dutch ancestors migrated in the seventeenth century AD to New Amsterdam, a city we now know as New York. It was Roosevelt who understood the ancient, Frisian principles of trade, namely that primarely all individuals and families should profit from trade and production and hold power over economics. Not a small group of bankers and investors. In the '30s, with his hand on the family Dutch Bible published in AD 1668 during his inaguration as President, he retook with the New Deal control over the economy from bankers by leaving the Gold Standard. Governments, serving the people, had become too dependent on those guys on Wall Street; a Dutch street name by the way. In the meantime, countries yet again have become dependent on bankers, investors and hedge funds. Upcoming leaders like Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez plead for a Green New Deal. So, from Deal, to New Deal to Green New Deal.

Indeed, do not underestimate the cultural ties between the Anglo-Saxons and the Frisians when it comes to individualism, economics and free-trade. The Declaration of Independence of the United States is not only filled with individual freedom and the pursuit of happiness, but also mentions explicitly (free) trade interests. On 26 February 1782 the Republic of Friesland was the first sovereign state in the world that voted in favor to recognize the United States’ independence. Coincidence you think? No. And till this day one may find this coastal people still being an interlocutor or broker between the Old Continent and the Anglo-Saxon World, or as they say: "The Dutch are part of the transatlantic axis." Mark our words, the Dutch will be front runner in Europe in repairing the damage of the Brexit.

Read our post History is written by the victors – a history of credits to understand how the American values on civil liberties and free market were planted on its soil in the seventeenth century. Even how the Frisian-born Governor of the New Netherland colony, Pieter Stuyvesant, made sure in the Articles of Captiualtion of 1664 that the bourgeois liberties and rights, including free trade, of the citizens were to be respected by the British when the took over the colony. Again, in the New World the Dutch showed being pragmatic when it came to currencies and embrased the local currency of the native American tribes, namely the sewant. These were small, relatively scarce cylindrical or barrel-shaped white beads made from seashell found along the Atlantic coast, the knobbed or channelled whelk (Venema, 2003). Not only they represented valua, they also functioned in storytelling, ceremonial gift exchange, and (condolence) rituals. It is estimated that about 3 million of these sewant beads may have come into circulation with the Iroquois and Mahicans to facilitate the beaver pelt trade. Its value as 'light money' was even regulated by the Dutch colonial authorities.

Frisian sea trade - hulk
Frisian merchant

But the trade couldn’t do without a stable market on the Continent where to buy and sell their goods, oh, and slaves. The Franks had pacified or integrated -pardon our euphemistic language- the hinterland into a more-or-less stable market. And that's the symbiose, or love-hate relationship if you like, between the Franks and the Frisians and later the Dutch. Emporium Dorestat, the New York of the Early Middle Ages, with an estimated population of 10,000 people with docks and quays extending a 1,000 meters along the banks of the River Rhine was a city being neither Frisian nor Frankish. This hybrid nature of Dorestat was illustrative for the interdependence between the two peoples. The Cosmographia Ravennatis, written in the second half of the seventh century AD, classifies Dorestat as a Frisian settlement, however.

In this respect not much has changed. Later on, it were the sea-trading Low Countries with the ports of Amsterdam and Rotterdam including Delfshaven but later also Emden that flourished because of a big and stable hinterland, Germany. A hinterland that had gotten a new name: the Rhur. And again no coincidence, the Netherlands were among the founding fathers of integration of economic area’s like their coastal ancestors had done before with the wider North-Sea region. We name the Benelux of 1944 and the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, being the origin of the European Union.

And what about Marx?

When in 1867 Das Kapital was published it was actually a representation of the secluded mountains and woods of the Continent. A landlubber who had no clue what was going on at dynamic sea for centuries. He could have guessed since his birthplace Trier at the banks of the River Moselle had depended on Frisian free-trade in early-medieval times already. Just like nearby town Worms to the east at the banks of the River Rhine had done so too. The influential monastery of Echternach near Trier was even founded by Willibrord in the seventh century AD, whose title was Archbishop and Apostle of the Frisians. To put it bluntly: no person from the southern North Sea coast in his right mind would have written Das Kapital. Read also our blog post The Abbey of Egmond and the rise of the Gerulfings about the medieval links between Frisia, Saint Willibrord and Echternach.

In 1883 Marx died at the other end of the ancient Frisian trade route: Lundunwic, a city that had gotten a new name too, London.

Post scriptum Audulf of Frisia

We are, of course, aware of the mist still surrounding King Audulf. Some scholars argue the quality of the coins is too good to be true to be Frisian and therefore should be made by the apparently more refined Franks. Scholars had for long the same hesitation with the origin of pallia Fresonica (read our blog post Haute couture from the salt marshes). On the other hand we have seen the Frisians were no backward farmers trapped in the woods, but were a worldly people able to make cloth and jewelry of the highest international quality imaginable of which fibulae found in the northern terp region are magnificent examples. Jewelry matching without a doubt the quality of the finds of Sutton Hoo in England (read our blog post Ornament of the Gods found in a mound of clay). Making quality dies and minting small coins, therefore, should have been within their grasp. We would say, that's a no-brainer. And yes, the appearances of the coin was more robust. But it was what was inside that counted, namely the stable silver content. That makes you a reliable trader. And the weight of silver in the sceattas was more consistant than the money of their so-called sophisticated neighbors. That was the real finesse, the real trust.

Let us explain it one more time:

Scholars adhering to the Frankish origin-theory subsequently have the additional challenge to explain the text AVDVLFVS VICTORIA and to make somehow plausible it was a victory of a Frankish king over the Frisians instead. So, a victory over Audulf. Other scholars dismiss this argument as far-fetched since this was not the practice of rulers in that era. You put as a ruler of course your own name on the coin and not somebody else’s. Imagine a portrait of Stalin on a U.S. bank note. Not gonna happen. Neither is there support in early-medieval Frankish texts for this victory over Frisia at the beginning of the seventh century AD. Lastly, the same question marks are not being placed at the rule and existence of the Anglo-Saxon King Æthelstan who ruled from AD 825-AD 845 and who is principally known from extensive issue of coins.

All in all, the Frankish-origin clique seem to apply double standards and lack a winning argument. At the same time, local theories arguing the battle referred to in fact was a victory of King Audulf over King Theudebert II of Austrasia are far too concrete considering available evidence and must be dismissed as well.

Till now we can only speculate as to where big man Audulf had his power base or where his hall stood. The fourteenth century AD pro-Holland chronicler Johannis De Beke argued that Audulf had his burh, or burgh, at Foreburg (present-day town Voorburg) in province Zuid Holland. But this has been dismissed as fiction. But we can assume it must have been in the central river-lands of the Netherlands. The river basins of the River Old-Rhine, of the River Vecht and the estuaries of the mighty rivers Rhine and Meuse at the coast of present-day province Zuid Holland, might very well be power bases of early-medieval rulers. It gave them control over important trade networks and at the same they were connected to the elite network of the wider North Sea that had developed from the sixth century AD. It's also thought Frisian (over)kings or counts like Aldgisl and Radbod might have had their power base here, and perhaps also the fifth century AD King Finn of Frisia.

NOTE 1 – Although the exceptional achievement of the Frisians being the central freigthers of the Early Middle Age was never equalled again, in the eigtheenth century skippers from the coastal strip between the port towns of Lemmer and Harlingen along the southwest coast of province Friesland, dominated the trade on the Baltic Sea (again). The trade with the Baltic Sea area was called: the Oostzeevaart ‘Baltic Sea-trade’, the Grote Oost ‘Great East’ (as opposed to the Kleine Oost ‘Little Oost’, being the trade with the North Sea coast of Germany), the Sontvaart (‘the Sound-trade’), or the Moedernegotie ‘Mother Trade’. During the period of the Oostzeevaart the Frisians are known as ‘The Freighters of Europe’.

NOTE 2 – If interested in other pre- and early-medieval kings of Frisia, read our blog posts about the Frisian (over)kings Finn Folcwald, Aldgisl and Radbod.

Further reading:

Abramson, T., Studies in early medieval coinage. Volume 2. New Perspectives (2011)

Bauer, A. & Pesch, A. (ed), Hvanndalir - Beiträge zur europaischen Altertumskunde und mediävistischen Literaturwissenschaft; Düwel, K., Merkwürdiges zu Goldbraktaeten und anderen Inschriftenträgern (2018)

Beers, J., Runes in Frisia. On the Frisian origin of runic finds (2012)

Boeles, P.C.J.A., Nogmaals het zwaardje van Arum en de Hada-munt (1906)

Bremen, of A., History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Translated with an introduction & notes by Francis J. Tschan. With a new introduction & selected bibliography by Timothy Reuter (2002)

Bremmer, R.H., Frisians in Anglo-Saxon England: A historical and topnymical investigation (2005)

Dijkstra, M.F.P., Rondom de mondingen van de Rijn en Maas. Landschap en bewoning tussen de 3de en de 9de eeuw in Zuid-Holland, in het bijzonder de Oude Rijnstreek (2011)

Faber, K.P.H. & Faber, L.A., De eerste koningen van Nederland (2007)

Fontijn, D., Economies of Destruction. How the systematic destruction of valuables created value in Bronze Age Europe c. 2300-500 BC (2020)

Fourace, P. (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume I c. 500 - c.700 (2013)

Ginkel, van E. & Vos, W., Grens van het Romeinse Rijk. De limes in Zuid-Holland (2018)

Green, D.H. & Siegmund, F. (ed), The Continental Saxons from the Migration Period to the Tenth Century. An Ethnographic Perspective; Steuer, H., The beginnings of urban economies among the Saxons (2003)

Grierson, P. & Blackburn, M., Medieval European Coinage. The Early Middle Ages 5th-10th centuries (1986)

Harari, Y.N., Sapiens. Een kleine geschiedenis van de mensheid (2012)

Henstra, D.J., The evolution of the money standard in medieval Frisia. A treatise on the history of the systems of money of account of former Frisia c.600-c.1500 (1999)

Higham, N.J. & Ryan, M., The Anglo-Saxon World (2013)

IJssennagger, N., Nicolay, J., Hattenberg, T. & Amsterdam, E., Gemeten goud. Een onderzoek naar goudgehaltes van vroegmiddeleeuwse objecten uit Friesland (2016)

Israel, J., Friesland and the Rise of Democratic Republicanism in the Western World (1572-1800) 2019

Jansen, S. & Lokven, M., Rivierenland. Nederland van Aa tot Waal (2018)

Jong, de W., Audulfus: zendeling, heilige of Fries koning in het wild? (SEMafoor, 2002)

Kauffmann, P.E., Recherches numismatiques, Triens Audulfe - monétaire (Mérovingiens, website)

Koopman, M., Merovingian quern stones from Mayen. Investigating the distribution of tephrite quern stones to the Netherlands in the Merovingian period (2018)

Koopmans, J.J., Van smakschipper tot Sontvaarder (2021)

Koopmans, J.J., Vrachtvaarders van Europa. Een onderzoek naar schippers afkomstig uit Makkum in Friesland van 1600 tot 1820 (2020)

Kramer, E., De Hada-runensolidus opnieuw bekeken: eremetaal voor moed, godsvrucht en smeedkunst? (2016)

Lebecq, S., Hommes, mers et terres du Nord au début du Moyen Âge. Volume 1: Peuples, cultures, territoires (2011)

Lebecq, S., Hommes, mers et terres du Nord au début du Moyen Âge. Volume 2: Centres, communications, échanges (2011)

Lebecq, S., Marchands et Navigateurs Frisons du haut moyen âge. Volume 1: Essai (1983)

Lebecq, S., The Frisian trade in the Dark Ages. A Frisian or a Frankish/Frisian trade? (1992)

Leyser, H., A short history of the Anglo-Saxons (2017)

Looijenga, T.H., Die goldenen Runensolidi aus Schweindorf und Harlingen (2013)

Looijenga, T.H., Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts (1997)

Marsden, A.B., The Aldborough hoard (Norfolk) of sceattas (2012)

Marsden, A.B., Three recent sceatta hoards from Norfolk (2012)

Meeder, S. & Goosmann, E., Redbad. Koning in de marges van de geschiedenis (2018)

Meier, D., Seefahrer, Händler und Piraten im Mittelalter (2004)

Oosthuizen, S., The Emergence of the English (2019)

Pettifor, A., The Case for the Green New Deal (2019)

Pestell, T., The Kingdom of East Anglia, Frisia and Continental Connections, c. AD 600 – 900 (2014)

Pestell, T. & Ulmschneider K. (ed.), Markets in Early Medieval Europe. Trading and 'Productive' Sites, 650-850 (2003)

Pye, M., The Edge of the World. How the North Sea made us who we are (2014)

Stiles, P., Remarks on the 'Anglo-Frisian' Thesis (1995)

Tummuscheit, A., Groß Strömkendorf: a Market Site of the Eighth Century on the Baltic Sea Coast (2003)

Tuuk, van der L., De eerste Gouden Eeuw. Handel en scheepvaart in de vroege middeleeuwen (2011)

Tuuk, van der L., De Friezen. De vroegste geschiedenis van het Nederlands kustgebied (2013)

Tuuk, van der L., Radbod. Koning in twee werelden (2018)

Velde, van der W. & Metcalf, M., Series E Reconsidered (2011)

Venema, J., Beverwijck. A Dutch Village on the American Frontier, 1652-1664 (2003)

Willemsen, A., Gouden Middeleeuwen. Nederland in de Merovingische wereld, 400 – 700 na Chr (2015)

Zimmermann, Chr. and Jöns, H., Cultural Contacts between the Western Baltic, the North Sea Region and Scandinavia. Attributing runic finds to runic traditions and corpora of the Early Viking Age (2014)